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Wladyslaw Gomulka

elected as secretary of state by the Polish Communist Party and declared that poland had a right to follow its own socialist path which led to the compormise saying poland would remain loyal to the warsaw pact and the soviets allowed it to follow its own path of socialism

Imry Nagy

elected the new Hugarian leader, declared Hugary a free nation to quell rebellions, led the red army to invade and was replaced by Kadar

A. Novotny - "Little Stalin"

Czechoslovakian leader who was placed in power by Stalin and who resigned due to a writer's rebellion in 1967.

Prague Spring

A period of euphoria that led many to call for far-reaching reforms. Crushed by the red army in August 1968.

Christian Democrats

New parties not connected to prewar church-based parties who were sincerely interested in democracy and in significant economic reforms.

Charles de Gaulle (Fifth Republic)

Frenchman who assumed leadership of some important groups and played an important role in ensuring the establishment of a French provisional government. Later became president of the Fifth republic.

K. Adenauer

Leader of the Christian Democrats who served as chancellor and became the "founding hero" of the Federal Republic in West Germany. Helped resurrect the West German economy.

Nuremberg Trials

The trials of many of the surviving major Nazi leaders condemning them as war criminals.

Labour Party

Formed British government after the war. Promised far-reaching reforms, particularly in the area of social welfare.

Welfare State

Began with the nationalization of the Bank of England, the coal and steel industries, public transportation, and public utilities.


The Organization for European Economic Co-operation formed in 1948 out of the Marshall Plan to help administer that plan.

Lyndon B. Johnson

American president who pursued the improvement of the welfare state and equal rights for African-Americans. Took office when Kennedy was assassinated.


Vice president under Eisenhower. Republican presidential candidate who led the political shift to the right with his election. Resigned after Watergate scandal in 1974.

EEC / Common Market

European Economic Community which promoted free traded among member nations.

Roosevelt's New Deal

Largely determined the patterns of domestic politics. Brought about social reform. Increased power of federal government, rise in political and economic power of organized labor, and began welfare state.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

leader of movement for racial equality by using non-violent means. Assassinated in 1968.


North American Air Defense Command. Formed between the U.S. and Canada to defend North America against missile attacks.

Simone de Beavoir

A teacher and novelist whose work was important to the post-war women's liberation movement.

Betty Friedan

A journalist who contributed to the growth of the women's lib movement.

Love Ins

Outdoor public festivals for young people during the 1960's. Came with the beginning of the "Free Love" movement.

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