The Dark Ages
name given to the Early Middle Ages because learning and civilizations declined
a tax assessed by the Church
armored warriors who fought on horseback
king of the Franks from 768 to 814, "the Great"
the feudal ceremony in which a vassal received land from a lord
the leader of a monastery
the code of conduct developed by feudal nobles
Eric the Red
Viking explorer who discovered and named Greenland
a piece of land given to a vassal by a lord
the first king ever to be anointed by a pope, "the Short"
women who lived in convents and devoted their lives to prayer
treaty that divided Charlemagne's empire into three kingdoms
a charge to cross a vassal's land or bridge
Viking name for Newfoundland
the head of the Catholic Church
communities in which groups of Christian men gave up all their private possessions and lived very simply, devoting their lives to worship and prayer
a lord's estate, from which his family gained its livelihood
invaders of Europe from Scandinavia
Frankish leader who defeated the Muslims in Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732
a political and military system based on the holding of land
pope who crowned Charlemagne "Emperor of the Romans" in 800
monk who established a strict set of rules for monastic life
peasants bound to a manor
decorating the first letter of a paragraph and the margins of a paper with brilliant designs
languages that evolved from Latin
men who lived in monasteries
Viking exploreer who reached America in the year 1000
a person who received land from a lord
Benedict's sister who established the rules for convents
part of northern France conquered by the Vikings in 911, from the French word meaning "men from the north"
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