is the process by which an authority imposes a lawful punishment or other sanctions on a person convicted of violating the criminal law.
The model of criminal sentencing suggests that punishment should be appropriate to the type and severity of the crime.
When the criminal punishment is associated with violation of the law, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that constitutional guarantees of _______ must apply.
Bob steels a TV. Bob is sent to prison as an example to others so they won't steel TV's. The goal of Bob's punishment is:
is a goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent others from committing crimes similar to the ones for which an offender is being sentenced.
The purpose of __________ is to reform criminal offenders, restoring them to productive lives in the community.
is the sentencing philosophy that aims to reduce the likelihood that the offender will be capable of committing future offences.
A more sever penalty than for the offence alone
An offender sentenced under a habitual offender statute who has been show to be previously convicted of other specified crimes will receive
A conviction for prostitution does not require the sexual act in question to actually take place.
In most states, only the prostitute, not his or her customer, can be found guilty of prostitution.
Obscene material that appeals to the prurient interest and lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value is not protected by the First Amendment.
The practice of homosexuality was against the law in this country in most places for many years.
RICO is an acronym for the section of the federal Organized Crime Control Act known as Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organizations provision.
The Commission of a traditional crime (murder) with the intention of coercing a population or influencing a government through fear or intimidation.
Common elements of the crime of terrorism
1. Intimidation of fear 2. The commission of a crime 3. The intent to intimidate or coerce a government of population.
Combating terrorism the Government
Focus is on prevention as much as it is on prosecution and punishment.
The executive branch
Courts normally extend great difference to the judgement of ______in matters of national security.
are some of the fastest growing areas of
According to the United Nations trafficking in persons and human smuggling ___________international criminal activity
US Patriot Act
is a major piece of legislation passed in response to the attacks on the World Trade Center.
Crimes against _________are those that disturb or invade socity's peace and tranquility.
An unlawful assembly
In most jurisdictions ______is the gathering of three or more persons for the purpse of committing an unlawful act.
is the offense of giving or receiving a gift or reward intended to influence a person in the exercise of a judicial or public duty.
An office holder who commits misconduct in office by doing something he or she has no right to do is guilty of:
Breach of peace
includes not only violent acts, but acts and worlds likely to produce violence in others.
Is the trespassory or wrongful taking and carrying away of the personal property of another with the intent to steel.
is the misappropriation of property already in possession of, the lawful property of another by means of the deception, and with intent to defraud.
is knowingly and unlawfully obtaining the title to, and possession of, the lawful property of another by means of deception, and with intend to defraud.
is the offering, passing, or attempting passing of a forged instrument with knowledge that the document is false and with the intent to defraud.
The element of ________ are 1. breaking an 2. entering of 3. a building locked automobile, boat, etc. 4. with the intent to commit a felony or theft.
The intent or knowing damage or destruction of the tangible property of another is:
Personal Trespass by Computer
The elements of _______ make it illegal for a person to 1. use a computer or computer network 2. without authority and 3. with the intent to cause physical injury to an individual.
is the oral copulation between persons of the same or different gender, or between a human being and an animal.
is the intentional and offensive touching or wrongful physical contact with another without consent, that results in some injury or offends ir causes discomfort.
The elements of the crime ________ are 1. an unlawful taking and carrying away 2. of a human being 3. by force, fraud, threats, or intimidation and 4. against the persons will.
in most jurisdictions today, the elements of the crime rape are 1. sexual intercourse with a person not the spouse of the perpetrator 2. through force, threat of force, or by guile, and 3. without the lawful consent of the victim.
The worth of any evidence to prove or disprove the facts at issue is said to have probative value.
sentence to prison thinking they are going to be there a long time, allow them to apply for probationary release and grant it in a surprise.
1. Retribution 2. Deterrence 3. Rehabilitation 4. Restoration 5. Incapacitation.
5 distinguishing features of criminal punishment
1. It must involve pain or other consequences normally considered unpleasant. 2. It must be for an offense against legal rules. 3. It must be imposed against an actual or supposed offender for his offense. 4. it must be intentionally administered by human beings other than the offender. 5. It must be imposed by an authority constituted by a legal system against which the offense is committed.
induces others to participate in the offense. The offense was especially heinous or cruel, the defendant was armed, the offense was committed to prevent arrest or during escape, The offense was committed against someone in the criminal justice position. The defendant took advantage of a position or trust.
No criminal record more than 60 days in jail, mad substantial or full restitution, person was of good character or has a good reputation,assisted prosecution, offense was committed under duress coercion, threat or compulsion. Mental or physical condition reduces culpability.
Social equity similar crimes deserve similar punishments regardless of gender, race, or social standings.
Criminals are held accountable- they deserve to be punished.
1. retribution 2. Deterrence 3. rehabilitation 4. restitution 5. Incapacitation
restore- make the criminal right their wrongs. Make the victim and the community feel whole again.
Golden Age of the Victim
a few hundred years ago the victim had well recognized rights including the personal say in how the criminal was punished.
The kings peace
Crimes seen as crimes against society. The victim was removed from the equation. State centered justice.
Obscene behavior. intimate activity by a single person that is sexual arousing...Pee in public
The Elements of the Crime Prostitution
1. engaging in or offering to preform 2. a sexual act 3. for hire.
Force, fraud coercion or under 18. Forced labor/ to exploit victims. Slaves limited movement, documentation confiscated, Not required to cross international borders. Personal involvement in labor or services or commercial sex "working"