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Whitman and Mattord

The entire range of values that can possibly be used to construct an individual key.


Developed by Phil Zimmermann and uses the IDEA Cipher for message encoding.


The amount of effort (usually in hours) required to perform cryptanalysis to decode an encrypted message when the key or algorithm (or both) are unknown.

Work factor

An x.509 v3 certificate binds a ____, which uniquely identifies a certificate entity, to a user's public key.

distinguished name

Bit stream methods commonly use algorithm functions like the exclusive OR operation ___.


The process of converting an original message into a form that is unreadable to unauthorized individuals.


The protocol used to secure communications across any IP-based network such as LANs, WANs, and the Internet.


A federal information processing standard that specifies a cryptograhic algorithm used within the U.S. government to protect information in federal agencies that are not a part of the national defense infrastructure.


A hybrid cryptosystem that combines some of the best available cryptographic algorithms and has become the open-source de facto standard for encryption and authentication of e-mail and file storage applications.


More advanced substitution ciphers use two or more alphabets, and are referred to as ____ substitutions.


The information used in conjunction with an algorithm to create the ciphertext from the plaintext or derive the plaintext from the ciphertext.


A method of encryption that requires the same secret key to encipher and decipher the message is known as ____ encryption.


The ____algorithm was the first public key encryption algorithm developed (in 1977) and published for commercial use.


The ____is responsible for the fragmentation, compression, encryption, and attachment of an SSL header to the cleartext prior to transmission.

SSL Record Protocol

An integrated system of software, encryption methodologies, protocols, legal agreements, and third-party services that enables users to communicate securely.


Encrypted messages that can be mathematically proven to be authentic.

Digital signatures

____functions are mathematical algorithms that generate a message summary or digest to confirm the identity of a specific message and to confirm that there have not been any changes to the content.


A____is a key-dependent, one-way hash function that allows only specific recipients (symmetric key holders) to access the message digest.


____attacks are a collection of brute-force methods that attempt to deduce statistical relationships between the structure of the unknown key and the ciphertext that is the output of the cryptosystem.


The ____protocol provides system-to-system authentication and data integrity verification, but does not provide secrecy for the content of a network communication.

AH (authentication header)

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