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Exam 2- Biology 172
This set covers materials that will be included on Exam 2 of Bio 172 at the University of Michigan. Fall 2014
Terms in this set (76)
The entire set of chemical reactions that sustain life
The loss of electrons (more positive charge)
Organic molecules store ____________ energy in their ____________ bonds
Cadherin is an example of
a cell adhesion molecule
second law of thermodynamics
an increase in disorder in the universe over time
proteins that form connections between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix
The electron transport chain is part of
Organisms that derive their energy and carbon from organic compounds
Energy production during cellular respiration
A small amount of energy is produced by substrate level phosphorylation; most is produced by oxidative phosphorylation
organisms that derive energy from sunlight
Organisms that are able to make their own food
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
Organisms that get energy from chemicals taken from the environment
cellular junction allows for the movement of proteins and transfer RNA molecules
large molecules are broken down and ATP is produced
Organisms that obtain electrons from the oxidation of inorganic compounds are called
Electrons farthest from the nucleus have the
most potential energy
The first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed
When a single pyruvate is converted to acetyl-CoA, the other products of the reaction are
NADH and CO2
The proteins of the electron transport chain are
embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane
Which best describes energy production during cellular respiration?
A small amount of energy is produced by substrate level phosphorylation; most is produced by oxidative phosphorylation.
During fermentation, pyruvate is:
The majority of energy generated in the citric acid cycle is in the form of
energy electrons donated to NAD+ and FADH
In the absence of oxygen, fermentation
regenerates NAD+ from the reduction of pyruvate.
Phosphorylating glucose during phase 1 of glycolysis
destabilizes the glucose molecule so that it can be broken down in stage 2.
Building a protein by adding amino acids to the chain is an example of
The inputs to glycolysis
Energy released by transferring electrons along the electron transport chain is stored as potential energy in the form of
a proton gradient
Cellular respiration is a series of _____ reactions
For the potential energy of a proton gradient to be converted to the chemical energy of ATP, the movement of protons down their electrochemical gradient must be coupled with ATP synthesis. This coupling is made possible by
The citric acid cycle takes place in the
Synthesis of a protein is an example of a chemical reaction that is
endergonic and anabolic
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain
We consume a variety of carbohydrates that are digested into a variety of different sugars. How do these different sugars enter glycolysis?
Sugars are converted to various forms and enter glycolysis at various stages
Which regulatory mechanism is activated when the overall energy availability of a cell is high?
ATP inhibits phosphofructokinase 1
The proteins of the electron transport chain are:
embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Organisms with only one photosystem cannot
During the citric acid cycle, the production of CO2 is a(n) _____ reaction coupled to the production of ____________.
Coenzyme Q and cytochrome C
transfer high-energy electrons between protein complexes of the electron transport chain.
Many photosynthetic prokaryotes are capable of cyclic electron transport only. It is likely that such organisms can ____________ but not ____________.
produce ATP; reduce CO2
The citric acid cycle is a cycle because the starting molecule, _____, is regenerated at the end.
Chemicals called un-couplers can make membranes permeable to small molecules and ions. What effect might un-couplers have on photosynthesis?
Decreased ATP production because the proton-gradient would decrease
In plants and algae, which of the following is a by-product of photosynthesis?
The Calvin cycle and light-harvesting reactions are separated in ____________.
In plants and algae, ____________ is the source of the electrons needed for photosynthesis.
Energy released by transferring electrons along the electron transport chain is stored as potential energy in the form of:
a proton gradient.
Paraquat is an herbicide that blocks the transfer of electrons from PSII. Mechanistically, paraquat is effective because it ____________.
increases the formation of reactive oxygen species
ATP production during photosynthesis requires ____________
light, electrons, and protons
CO2 reduction requires ____________.
ATP and NADPH
Rubisco is characterized by ____________.
slow catalysis and substrate confusion
The Z scheme refers to ____________.
the energy inputs associated with electron transport
The reducing agent during the Calvin cycle is:
How does the metabolism occurring in chloroplasts differ from that of mitochondria?
Different electron acceptors and sources
ATP production during photosynthesis requires ____________.
light, electrons, and protons
PSI is a ____________ than PSII.
weaker oxidant and a stronger reductant
A new experimental pesticide is being tested by a large agricultural chemical company. An unfortunate side effect in plants treated with this new product is a decrease in NADPH production in the chloroplasts. (Interestingly, reduction of NAD<sup>+<sup> to NADH in the mitochondria is unaffected.) Given this observation, which of the following would you expect to observe in the chloroplasts of these plants?
an increase in 3-phosphoglycerate levels and a decrease in RuBP production
The most abundant protein on Earth is:
The reactions of the Calvin cycle used to be referred to as the "dark reactions" of photosynthesis, implying that light was not required for this pathway to incorporate CO<sub>2</sub> into carbohydrate. However, in the absence of light the Calvin cycle shuts down. Which of the following parts of the Calvin cycle would be impacted FIRST by the absence of light energy?
the reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate and the regeneration of RuBP
The central dogma of molecular biology states that information flows from:
DNA to RNA to protein.
Energy is required in order to add a nucleotide to the growing strand of DNA during replication. From where does that energy come?
the incoming nucleotide
When a mixture of debris from killed virulent bacteria and living non-virulent bacteria are injected into mice:
the mice are killed because the non-virulent bacteria are transformed into virulent bacteria.
Non-virulent bacteria can be prevented from being transformed into virulent bacteria if the debris from heat-killed virulent bacteria is first treated with:
What is the name of the enzyme that separates the two strands of DNA during replication?
In the experiments conducted by Avery, McCarty, and MacLeod, which one of the following hypothetical results would indicate that protein, not nucleic acid, was Griffith's transforming principle?
Only the extracts from heat-killed cells treated with protease are unable to transform nonvirulent bacteria.
Why are single-stranded binding proteins necessary for DNA replication?
Which one of the following represents a standard Watson-Crick base pair interaction?
In the DNA sequence 5'-TGAC-3', the phosphodiester linkage between the guanine and the adenine connects:
Which of the following is true of DNA?
A purine always forms a complementary base pair with a pyrimidine
True or false: The semiconservative model of DNA replication means that each DNA strand consists of some newly synthesized DNA and some parental DNA
Which of the following forces contribute to the stability of a DNA double helix?
hydrophobic interactions of bases in the same strand and hydrogen bonding between bases in adjacent strands
The enzyme ____________ prevents chromosomes from shortening at the tips after each round of DNA replication.
Hershey and Chase did an experiment where they infected E. coli with a virus (bacteriophage) in order to determine the molecule of inheritance (genetic material). What statement about their experiment is true?
Protein was labeled with radioactive Sulfur and did not enter the bacterial cell.
Marathon runners will "Carbo load" before a race by eating meals with lots of carbohydrates. Why do they do this?
Carbohydrates are highly oxidized molecules and they provide some of the oxygen that is needed to run the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.
Which of the following is NOT needed to run the Calvin cycle?
The electron transport chain consists of complexes I-IV. A bizarre mutation is found in some of Professor Chapman's cells that cause his electron transport chain complexes to pump protons in the opposite direction they are supposed to. Assuming that everything else in these cells is normal, what would the consequence of this mutation be for the affected cells.
Decreased production of ATP for every glucose molecule that is broken down.
What are the metabolic end products of the light reactions of photosynthesis?
O2, ATP, and NADPH
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