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A lack of knowledge, an inability to recognize the significance of sensory stimuli


The reasons that people give for what happens to them

cognitive approaches

programs that focus on learning and thinking skills

Behavioral approaches

also referred to as skill models or task-based perspectives, they assume that a child's problems are external and result from some gap in instruction

curriculum-based assessment

A standardized measurement system used to monitor a students academic growth and improve instructional programs

direct instruction

activity-focused, teacher-directed classroom procedures that are systematic and usually conducted according to an individual plan


an awareness of left and right in the environment outside the body


A disturbance in the ability to use and remember numbers and do arithmetic


A disturbance in the ability to express thoughts in writing


A specific type of reading disability

emotional overlay

An adverse reaction to learning problems and academic failure

generic approaches

techniques such as adapting curriculum and grading requirements in the general classroom or providing resource room assistance in areas of academic lag.

haptic abilities

encompasses touch, body movement, and position in space

language hierarchy

The four components of listening, speaking, reading, and writing

language learning disabilities

problems with age-appropriate reading , spelling, and/or writing, including dyslexia.


An internal knowledge of the differences between left and right

learning disabilities

a group of related and overlapping conditions that includes vastly different populations that reveal a wide variety of behavioural, learning, social, and interpersonal problems

learning strategies

an individual's approach to tasks that are either generic or domain specific


The awareness of basic learning strategies and one's own awareness of how one learns

mnemonic devices

Rhymes, jingles, or images that order information to aid memory

phonemic awareness

sensitivity to individual sounds within words and the ability to manipulate those sounds

phonological awareness

The ability to blend, segment, rhyme, or in other ways manipulate the sounds of spoken words


brief samples of academic behavior

psychological processing

the way an individual processes sensory information and puts it to meaningful intellectual use


A person's description of him- or herself in relation to roles, attributes, or characteristics

Summarize the NJCLD consensus definition of a learning disability (LD).

A heterogeneous group of disabilities manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, and mathematical abilities.

Describe the general characteristics that are common to learning-disabled students relative to intelligence and to academic and affective functioning.

Inflexible attitude and language, receptive language difficulties, expressive language problems, academic problems, memory, impulsive, outward locus of control, coordination, social

Why is a definition of learning disabilities so difficult to construct?

they do not concern a single, easily identifiable disability, and children with learning disabilities do not form a unified, homogeneous group.

Describe the varied methods for classifying learning disabilities

By Severity: Mild, Moderate, Severe
General or Specific: Academic lags behind peers (s) student has difficulties in particular areas but does well in others.
Language & Non-Language:

Describe the processes involved in identifying and assessing students with learning disabilities.

The process involved with identifying and assessing students with learning disabilities is screening and psycho-educational diagnosis.

Indicate the general order of identification and assessment and the rationale for this order.

First is an assessment of intellectual potential to rule out the possibility of intellectual disability and simultaneously to establish normal mental ability. Next is achievement tests to evaluate performance (oral, written, etc).

Relate the developmental consequences of learning disabilities on perception, motor development and coordination, behaviour, attention, cognition, language development, learning, and social and emotional development.

Social and Emotional Development: children have a lowered self-concept, less optimistic resistant learned helplessness, emotional overlay
Learning: do not master higher level skills, lose motivation and focus. Language Development:reluctant to try new things, difficulties with articulation, immature speech patterns, mild speech irregularities, general unintelligibility, and cluttered speech.
Cognition: difficulty remembering, trouble with recall, forgetful
Attention: inability to focus, impulsive
Behavior: aggressive, less liked by peers
Motor Development: adverse social interaction
Perception: difficulty synthesizing sounds into words, analyzing word parts, and associating sounds with symbols.

Specify the educational approaches that teachers in the inclusive classroom can use to intervene in meeting the needs of students with learning disabilities and furthering their daily successes

sit student at front of class, colored book colorings for each class, student self-evaluations, communicate expectations, keep in mind too much homework can be overwhelming, provide finished products as guides

adaptive behaviour

How well a person is able to adapt to environmental demands according to the individual's age group and particular situation

Angleman syndrome

a genetic deletion syndrome on chromosome 15


The process of recognizing, identifying, associating, and inferring meaning beyond the figural information provided by the environment that allows an understanding of a concept and application to new conditions

cultural-familial mental retardation

Children who come from deprived backgrounds

developmental period

The period between conception and 18 yrs

Down syndrome

a cause of intellectual disability, ranging from mild to profound


benefit from academic instruction

fragile X syndrome

single gene disorder, it is on the X chromosome at position 927and caused by an abnormal gene or genes at the lower end of the long arm of the X chromosome

functional approach

aka life skills instruction or functionality. Focuses on adaptive behavior, self-help skills, life skills, and social skills

intellectual disability

social aspects of the disability. These people have difficulty meeting the challenges of our highly industrialized, technologically oriented and fast-paced society.


a term that traditionally included students with mild disabilities to learning and behaviour - learning disabled, mildly intellectually disabled, and mildly behaviourally disordered


a force that energizes, sustains, and directs behaviour toward a goal

Prader-Willi syndrome

genetic irregularity involving chromosome 15. Unique physical development and behavioural characteristics.

self-stimulating behaviour

persistent, stereotypic, repetitive mannerisms

self-injurious behaviour

any self-inflicted, repetitive action that leads to laceration, bruising, or abrasions of ones own body


focuses on training in life skills and skills for independent living

Williams syndrome

Deletion syndrome on chromosome 7. Affected individuals lack one gene from each of about 15 pairs. Cardiovascular abnormalities, short stature, and "elfin like" facial features

intermittent intellectual disabilities

capable of basic academic subjects up to advanced elementary levels

limited intellectual disabilities

capable of attaining self-help skills, communication skills, and social adjustment

extensive intellectual disabilities

Can attain basic communication and self-help skills.

pervasive intellectual disabilities

With intensive training, may learn basic self-help and communication skills

Discuss the three main factors within the primary definition of mental retardation.

subaverage intellectual functionings, deficits in adaptive behaviour, and manifestation during the development period.

Describe the relevance of adaptive behaviour to this definition.

first delineated as a component of mental retardation in the phenomenon of adaptive behaviour and described the 6 hour retarded child. One who cannot cope with the methods, pace, and materials of the regular educational classroom but functions quite adequately in other environment

Educational descriptors of children with intellectual disabilities traditionally use the terms "educable" and "trainable" to describe the severity of the disability. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) (APA, 1994) has provided a new set of qualifiers in the field of mental retardation. Compare both sets of descriptors and determine which set you think is most helpful in educating children with intellectual disabilities.

The DSM stresses people's potential futures rather than intellectual limitations, the focus changes from impact of people's disabilities to the needs of people who have a life and need support

Knowledge of the etiology of intellectual disabilities has increased greatly. Describe its general current position relative to known and unknown causes.

half of the cases of etiologies remain unknown. Diagnoses are made in fewer than half the affected individuals

Review the etiology of the chromosome-linked intellectual disabilities of Down syndrome and fragile X.

The etiology of down syndrome has 3 major types, Trisomy 21 (3 chromosomes instead of 2), translocation (only part of chromosome 21 is present in triplicate), and mosaicism (faulty distribution of chromosomes in later cell divisions. Fragile X is a genetic condition that can cause a range of learning and behavioral problems as well as physical issues, though these are usually less significant.

The process of identifying and measuring intellectual disabilities is still fraught with difficulties. Describe the range of assessment involved in identifying children with intellectual deficits, and the pivotal factors for including a child in this category

The process includes IQ and adaptive behavior. The pivotal factor is IQ because an assessment of intelligent is necessary to meet the definitional criteria of an IQ level two or more standard deviations below the norm

The developmental consequences of intellectual disabilities vary and are not necessarily static. Describe this continuum of consequences and the variables that may reduce the impact on child development.

we can place children who are mildly disabled and having trouble with academic subjects at one end and profoundly retarded youngsters who may be non-ambulatory and non-responsive to their surroundings at the other.

ummarize the consequences on the child's physical, cognitive, learning and memory, academic, communicative, behavioural, social, and emotional development.

physical: seen in measures of health, physical, and motor performance, and the age at which motor language milestones are attained. Cognitive: impaired or incomplete mental development, their problems are specifically a retardation in the development of intellectual and adaptive behavior. Learning and memory: task demands, observational learning, and studying for tests. Also problems generalizing and transferring skills and are less able to apply the knowledge or skills they have learned to new tasks, problems, or stimulus situations. Academic: limited intellectual ability, difficulties in working with abstract ideas, and problems in generalizing learning to new situations. Communication: children demonstrate delays in sentence length, sentence complexity, and speech-sound discrimination. Social and Emotional: less intimacy, loyalty, self-esteem, and contact in their friendships than did typical peers. Problems with interpersonal relationships, social concepts, emotional instability, and communication

Determine the factors that result in children with intellectual disabilities being poor processors of information

the factors that result in children with intellectual disabilities being poor processors of information are learning and memory disabilities.

Examine the impact of intellectual disabilities on memory.

The greatest difficulty seems to be with short-term memory. They often do not understand why they are memorizing certain information, in what context the information is meaningful, or how to internalize the structure provided by teachers

The current trend in educating children with intellectual disabilities, especially those with mild disabilities, is that of inclusion into the regular classroom setting. Specify the factors that determine the success of these children within an inclusion program

The factors that determine the success of these children within an inclusion program includes: his or her age, support services available, curriculum adaptations and modifications, acceptance by other students, the classroom teachers experience with and exposure to children who are exceptional, and the availability of community resources.

Determine the three major educational goals for children with intellectual deficits

Three major educational goals for children with intellectual deficits are productivity, independence, and participation

Summarize the educational approaches, program targets, and strategies for instruction relative to serving children with mild disabilities, moderate disabilities, and severe and profound disabilities.

Success may only be fractional for children functioning at the low end of the continuum. Students require instruction in basic academic skills, particularly basic literacy and numercy. Teachers must also stress cognitive, language, and social domains. Each program will be individualized based on a student's unique set of strengths and weaknesses. For children with moderate disabilities, functional independence to ready them to meet the demands of their community environments. Less academically oriented. For students who are severely or profoundly disabled, a range of other services from professionals such as doctors, speech therapists, social workers, and psychologists. To decrease dependence on others, increase awareness of environmental stimulation, teach basic communication and self-help skills, and push achievement levels higher.

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