All Terms Unit 1 CH1 CH2 CH3
Terms in this set (91)
Movement of people for the purpose of settling in a new place.
People who moved their homes regularly in search of food.
Groups of families who share a common ancestor.
To trade goods or services without money.
A new class of merchants, traders, and artisans that arose in Europe in the late Middle Ages; in modern times, the social class between the very wealthy and the lower working class.
Those who rule over territories or states.
A "great charter" signed by King John in 1215 that granted certain rights to English nobles and became the foundation for future American ideals of liberty and justice.
The transatlantic trade of crops, technology, and culture between the Americas and Europe, Africa, and Asia that began in 1492 with Columbus's first voyage to the Americas.
Large farm on which crops are raised mainly for sale.
A Spanish conqueror.
An area of land settled by immigrants who continue to be ruled by their parent country.
A person sent out by his or her church to spread religion.
Certificate of permission given by a government.
A person who works for another person for a specified period of time, usually seven years, under a contract, in exchange for transportation, food, and shelter.
People who favored the purification of England's Anglican Church.
Agreement in which settlers of Plymouth Colony agreed to obey their government's laws.
Idea that people of different religions should live in peace together.
A colony granted by a king or queen to an individual or a group who has full governing rights.
Economic theory that a country should try to get and keep as much bullion (gold and silver) as possible by exporting more goods than it imported.
balance of trade
Difference in value between imports and exports.
Trade between the Americas, Europe, and Africa.
One leg of the triangular trade; term also used to refer to the forced transport of slaves from Africa to the Americas.
Person who enters a new country to settle.
Religious revival in the American colonies during the 1730s and 1740s.
French and Indian War
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by indian tribes)
a group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
First Continental Congress
Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence
Battles of Lexington and Concord
April 19, 1775, First shots were fired in Lexington, starting the Revolutionary War.
A war between the British and the colonists. The colonists wanted to be free of British rule.
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
government by the people
a form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by citizens who have the right to vote.
United States Constitution
Document that lays out the basic principles of American government. Has governed the United States for over 200 years.
federal system of government
a system in which power is shared among state and national authorities
separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
supporters of the constitution
people who opposed the Constitution
Bill of RIghts
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
an organization to gain political power
Marbury v. Madison
established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'
review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought this territory from France in 1803 doubling the size of the country overnight. The U.S. paid $15 million.
a government order imposing a trade barrier
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
1819, Spain gives up Florida and the Pacific Northwest to the United States.
Schools were not to teach just academics, but also to develop character. Virtues the America people wanted to develop included self-reliance, industry, frugality, harmony, and the sacrifice of individual need for the good of the community.
Ongoing effort over many decades to increase production by using machines powered by sources other than humans or animals in the 1700s.
All parts of a machine are made to an exact standard to which they can be switched out of needed.
A machine to separate the seeds from raw cotton fibers.
second great awakening
1800s renew of religious faith among Protestant Christians.
Shift from a home-based, often agricultural, economy to one based on money and the buying and selling of goods.
The making of goods by machinery.
free enterprise system
Economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods.
Wealth that can be invested to produce goods and make money.
Growth of industry.
A work stoppage intended to force an employer to meet certain demands, as in the demand for higher wages.
Organization of workers formed to protect the interest of its members.
Declaration by President Monroe in 1823 that the Untied States would oppose efforts by any outside power to control a nation in the Western Hemisphere.
A state's rejection of a federal law.
The powers that the Constitution neither gives to the federal government nor denies to the states.
To withdraw formally from membership in a group or organization.
Trail of Tears
The forced movement of Cherokees in 1838 to land west of the Mississippi River.
Philosophical movement of the mid-1800's that emphasized spiritual discovery and insight rather than reason.
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption.
Refraining from some activity, such as drinking.
A small society dedicated to perfection in social and political conditions.
Movement to end slavery.
A network of escape routes that provided protection and transportation for slaves fleeing north to freedom.
Seneca Falls Convention
The first woman's rights convention in United States history, held in 1848.
The right to vote.
Unequal treatment of a group of people because of their nationality, race, sex, or religion.
Undeniable fate for Americans to possess the entire continent
to join or to attach
Conflict between the united states and mexico from 1846-1848 ending with a United States victory
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clays proposed plan to seek a middle ground on slavery. that had 5 parts. 1. California is admitted as a free state. 2. New Mexico and Utah would vote to have slavery or not. 3. Congres would no longer allow the sale of slaves, but not slavery in Washington DC. 4. Texas would give up claims to New Mexico for $10 million 5. Fugitive slave act order all citizens to assist in the return of slaves and deny the jury trial of escaped slaves
unreasonable, usually unfavorable, opinion of another group that is not based on fact
Creation of 2 new territories, Kansas and Nebraska and Popular Sovereignty
a movement to ensure that native-born Americans receive better treatment than immigrants.
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri
Confederate States of America
States that seceded from the Union, starting with South Carolina. 6 more states seceded joined to create a new nation. Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was elected president.
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