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Barron's AP Human Geography - Chapter 1
Key terms found in Chapter 1 of Barron's AP Human Geography, 4th Edition
Terms in this set (85)
A distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or a kilometer.
The exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system.
The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place.
Human-induced changes on the natural environment.
A map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface.
The outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supplies.
Geographer from the University of California at Berkley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. This landscape results from the interaction between humans and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities.
A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area.
An image of a portion of Earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her min. Cognitive maps can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships among locations as well as personal perceptions and preferences of particular places.
The actual or potential relationships between two places, usually referring to economic interactions.
Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births.
Earth System Science
A systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between Earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale.
The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa.
The name given to the crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretching from the lower Nile Valley along the east Mediterranean coast and into Syria and present-day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C.
Friction of distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.
A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions--north, south, east, and west--no longer have any meaning.
the actual shape of the Earth, which is tough and oblate, or slightly squashed. Earth's diameter is longer along the equator than along the north-south meridians.
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place.
If one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, the supplier closer to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able to share its supply of goods and services. Intervening opportunities are frequently used because transportation costs usually decrease with proximity.
A map line that connects points of equal or very similar values.
A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.
Law of retail gravitation
A law stating that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business since larger cities have a wider influence on the surrounding hinterlands.
On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information about a particular political unit or jurisdiction.
George Perkins Marsh
An inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, "Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action," provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.
A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.
The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.
Concepts or rules that can be applied universally.
An equal-area projection purposely centered on Africa in an attempt to treat all regions of Earth .equally.
A map that displays individual preferences for certain places.
Proportional symbols map
A thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol--such as a circle or triangle--indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region.
Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives.
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.
A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques.
A map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigation.
The study of geographic regions.
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.
A map's smallest discernable unit. If, for example, an object has to be one kilometer long in order for it to show up on a map, that map's resolution is one kilometer.
A projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain area, shape, distance, or direction completely accurately, but it minimizes errors in each.
Sense of place
Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place.
A map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. Small-scale maps usually depict large areas.
The ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space.
An intellectual framework that looks at the particular locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is where it is, and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places.
The concept of using the Earth's resources in such a way that they provide for people's needs in the present without diminishing Earth's ability to provide for future generations.
Individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship.
A type of map that displays one or more variables--such as population, or income level--within a specific area.
The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.
Maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations. If you took a topographic map out into the field and walked exactly along the path of an isoline on your map, you would always stay at the same elevation.
The amount of connectivity between places regardless of the absolute distance separating them.
The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another.
Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three dimensional or interactive.
W. D. Pattinson
He claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions: the earth-science tradition, the culture-environment tradition, the locational tradition, and the area-analysis tradition.
A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area.
The theory and practice of making visual representations of the Earth's surface in the form of maps.
The degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places.
The spread of a disease, an innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place.
A standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on Earth's surface.
The study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments which they live in.
The human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society.
Distance decay effect
The decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases.
The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography."
The spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange.
Definition of regions based on common themes such as similarities in language, climate, land use, etc.
Definition of regions based on common interaction (or function) for example, a boundary line drawn around the circulation of a particular newspaper.
Geographic Information Systems
A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data.
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on Earth's surface with a portable electronic device.
A type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of a physical or cultural community between those places.
The study of the spatial variation in the patterns and processes related to human activity.
The line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian.
The angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude or parallels.
The angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude or meridians.
A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. This term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. All map projections have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape.
The ratio between the size of an area on the map and the actual size of the same area on Earth's surface.
A line of longitude that runs north-south.
An east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator.
Highly individualized definition of regions based on perceived commonalities in culture and landscape.
The realm of geography that studies the structures, processes, distributions, and change through time of the natural phenomena of the Earth's surface.
An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0° line of longitude.
Roman geographer-astronomer and author of "Guide to Geography" which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.
A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.
The position of a place relative to the places around it.
The diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and the like from one place to another through migration.
The observation and mathematical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images.
The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.
The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context.
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