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Chemistry Quiz Anatomy H
Terms in this set (80)
is the study of the structure and interactions of matter
is anything that occupies space and has mass.
is the amount of matter a substance contains
is the force of gravity acting on a mass
is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
- Each element has a one or two letter abbreviation called the Atomic Symbol (ex Carbon: C)
- Elements are normally found in the human body
About 96% of body's mass
Each Element is composed of identical particles or building blocks called Atoms.
- Atoms are the smallest unit of matter that retain the properties and characteristics of the element. Each element's atoms differ, giving the element it's unique physical and chemical properties
Structure of an Atom
3 types of subatomic particles:
protons, neutrons and electron
- Number of electrons = number of protons so atoms are not charged
-Revolve around nucleus are in specific regions called shells
-Each shell holds a certain maximum number of electrons
-Shell nearest the nucleus holds 2, 2nd shell holds 8, 3rd shell holds 18
-Outermost shell called valence shell
-Electrons fill shells from innermost to outmost
-Electrons determine the chemical behavior of atoms
the atomic number= number of protons in an atom= number of electrons in atom
- The number of protons makes the atoms of one element different from atoms of another element
- Mass Number of an atom= number of protons + number of neutrons
An atom that has a positive or negative charge because it has unequal number of protons and electrons
is the process of giving up or gaining electrons
Atoms of each element have a characteristic way of..
losing, gaining, or sharing their electrons when interacting with other atoms to achieve stability
How Chemical Bonds Work
- Atoms of molecules or compounds are held together by chemical bonds. It is an energy relationship between the electrons of the reacting atoms.
- Chemical bonding dependent on the number of electrons in the valence shell
- An atom with 8 valence electrons is stable
- Two or more atoms can interact in ways that produce a chemically stable arrangement of 8 valence electrons for each atom
One atom is likely to interact with another atom if doing so will leave both atoms with 8 electrons in their valence shells.
Type of Chemical Bonds:
The way the valence electrons are distributed determines the type of chemical bond that forms
When an atom loses or gains a valence electron, ions are formed.
- Positively and negatively charged ions are attracted to one another.
- When this force of attraction holds ions having opposite charges together, an ionic bond results.
- Sodium chloride is formed by ionic bonds
- In general, ionic compounds exist as solids but some may dissociate into positive and negative ions in solution
when an ionic compound dissociates into positive and negative ions in a solution
are positively charged ions that have given up one or
more electrons (they are electron donors).
are negatively charged ions that have picked up one or more electrons that another atom has lost (they are electron acceptors)
- Covalent bonds are formed by the atoms of molecules sharing one, two, or three pairs of their valence electrons.
- Covalent bonds are common and are the strongest chemical bonds in the body.
- Single, double, or triple covalent bonds are formed by sharing one, two, or three pairs of electrons, respectively
- Covalent bonds may be nonpolar or polar
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
atoms share the electrons equally; one atom does not attract the shared electrons more strongly than the other atom
- between two atoms of the same element and between carbon and hydrogen
Polar Covalent Bonds
share electrons unequally between the atoms involved
- Sharing of electrons between two atoms is unequal because the nucleus of one atom attracts the electrons more strongly than the nucleus of the other atom
- Resulting molecule has a partial negative charge near the atom that attracts the electron more strongly, the other atom of the molecule will have a partial positive charge
In a water molecule..
oxygen attracts the hydrogen electrons more strongly
- Oxygen has greater electronegativity as indicated by the negative Greek delta sign
- Weak bonds,more like attractions than true bonds, cannot bind atoms into molecules but establish links between different parts of molecules, helping to determine 3-D shape of molecule
- Form from attraction of oppositely charged parts of molecules not from sharing electrons (covalent bonds) or from loss or gain of electrons (ionic bonds)
-Approximately 5% as strong as covalent bonds
- Useful in establishing links between molecules or between distant parts of a very large molecule
- Large 3-D molecules are often held together by a large number of hydrogen bonds.
- Occur whenever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged or broken
- New bonds form and/or old bonds are broken.
- Metabolism is "the sum of all the chemical reactions in the body."
Law of conservation of mass
The total mass of reactants equals the total mass of the products
Energy is the capacity to do work
Chemical Energy is a form of potential energy that is stored in the chemical bonds of compounds and molecules
is one in which the bond being broken has more energy than the one formed so that extra energy is released, usually as heat (occurs during catabolism of food molecules).
is just the opposite and thus requires that energy be added, usually from a molecule called ATP, to form a bond, as in bonding amino acid molecules together to form proteins
- Atoms, ions & molecules are continuously moving & colliding.
- Activation energy is the collision energy needed to break bonds & begin a reaction.
-Increases in concentration &
temperature, increase the
probability of collision
--more particles are in a given space when the concentration is higher
--particles move more rapidly when temperature is raised
--Smaller size particles move faster
Factors that influence the chance that a
collision will occur and cause a chemical
-Catalysts are chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur.
- A catalyst does not alter the difference in potential energy between the reactants and products. It only lowers the amount of energy needed to get the reaction started.
- A catalyst helps to properly orient the colliding particles of matter so that a reaction can occur at a lower collision speed.
- The catalyst itself is unchanged at the end of the reaction; it is often reused many times
reactions occur when two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules. These are anabolic reactions, meaning that bonds are formed.
a molecule is broken down into smaller parts. These are catabolic reactions, meaning that chemical bonds are broken in the process
-Substances exchange atoms
-consist of both synthesis and decomposition reactions
Example: HCl + NaHCO3 gives rise to H2CO3 + NaCl
Chemical reactions can be reversible.
- Reactants can become products or products can revert to the original reactants
- Indicated by the 2 arrows pointing in opposite directions between the reactants and the products
is the loss of electrons from a molecule
is the gain of electrons by a molecule
- In the body, oxidation-reduction reactions are coupled & occur simultaneously
is the study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter
contain Carbon and are covalently bonded
water, salts, acids and bases
- is the most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living systems, 60-80% of volume of most living cells
- An important property of water is its polarity
- Water is the ideal medium for most chemical reactions in the body and participates as a reactant or product in certain reactions
- Water has a high heat capacity.
- It can absorb or release a relatively large amount of heat with
only a modest change in its own temperature.
- This property is due to the large number of hydrogen ions in water.
breaks large molecules down into simpler ones by adding a molecule of water
occurs when two simple molecules join together, eliminating a molecule of water in the process.
Water as a Solvent
In a solution the solvent dissolves the solute.
- Substances which are ionized, those that contain polar covalent bonds and dissolve in water are hydrophilic, while substances which contain non polar covalent bonds are hydrophobic.
Heat of vaporization in Water
is very high
-amount of heat needed to change from liquid to gas
-evaporation of water from the skin removes large amount of heat
Water as a Lubricant
-Water is a major part of mucus and other lubricating fluids.
- mucus in respiratory and digestive systems
- synovial fluid in joints
- serous fluids in chest and abdominal cavities organs slide past one another
- It is found wherever friction needs to be reduced or eliminated
Inorganic substances that ionize (dissociate) in water into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions (negative ions) Acids called proton donors
- Inorganic substances that dissociate into one or more hydroxide ions (OH) and one or more cations (positive ions)
- Proton acceptor, they take up hydrogen ions
- Inorganic substances that dissolve in water and dissociate into cations and anions, none of which is hydrogen ion or hydroxide ions
- KCl (potassium chloride) and CaCO3 (calcium Carbonate)
-Intracellular and extracellular fluids must maintain almost balanced acids and bases
- More hydrogen ions dissolved, more acidic
- More hydroxide ions, more basic (alkaline)
The relative concentration of hydrogen ions in various body fluids is measured in concentration units called pH units.
- pH range 0-14
- At pH of 7 the number of hydrogen ions about equals the number of hydroxyl ions and the solution is said to be neutral, neither acidic or basic.
- pH below 7 is acidic and pH above 7 is basic
- The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained fairly
constant by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and
a weak base.
- convert strong acids or bases into weak acids or bases.
Example: carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system.
Bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) act as weak bases and carbonic acid
(H2CO3) acts as a weak acid.
CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3-
- Buffers resist abrupt or large changes in the pH of body fluids by
releasing hydrogen ions when pH rises and by binding hydrogen ions
when pH drops.
- All Organic Compounds contain carbon
- Has four valence electrons
- Can bond covalently with variety of atoms to form rings and
straight or branched chains
- Function mainly as source of chemical energy to drive metabolic
- Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
H:O 2:1 ratio
C:O 1: 1 ratio
- monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose)
- disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
- water soluble
- glycogen, cellulose, starch
- insoluble in water
- Triglycerides, phospholipids, steriods
- Contain Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
- Do Not have 2:1 ratio of H:O that carbohydrates have
- Fewer polar covalent bonds than carbohydrates
- Most insoluble in polar solvents like water
- Most plentiful lipids in body
- Most highly concentrated form of energy in body
- Consist of three carbon glycerol molecule as its backbone and three fatty acid molecules attached, one to each carbon via dehydration synthesis resulting in an "E" shaped molecule
is a modified simple sugar
- 3:1 ratio of fatty acids to glycerol
are linear chains of C and H with an organic Acid group (-COOH) at one end
- Variation in the fatty acids chain
are important membrane components.
- Have both polar and nonpolar regions.
--a polar head
a phosphate group (PO4-3) & glycerol molecule
-- 2 nonpolar fatty acid tails
-Basically fat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings
- Fat soluble
- Cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, bile salts, vit D
Proteins have the most varied functions of any molecules in the body, give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes
-contain C, H, O, N
Levels of Structural Organization of a Protein: Primary
unique sequence of amino acids
Levels of Structural Organization of a Protein: Secondary
s alpha helix or pleated sheet folding
Levels of Structural Organization of a Protein: Tertiary
three-dementional shape of a polypeptide chain
Levels of Structural Organization of a Protein: Quaternary
arrangement of 2 or more polypeptide chains
are extended, strand-like proteins that are insoluble in water and very stable. They are the chief building materials of the body.
are compact, spherical proteins that are water soluble. They are chemically active molecules, functional proteins.
- The function of a protein depends on its ability to bind to another molecule
- Hydrogen bonds are important in maintaining this shape.
- Hydrogen bonds are fragile and easily broken by chemical and physical factors
- Hostile environments such as heat, acid or salts will change a protein's 3-D shape and destroy its ability to function
- Protein molecules that act as Catalysts
- Catalysts are substances that regulate and accelerate the rate of biochemical reactions but are not used up in those reactions.
- End in suffix "-ase"
- Highly specific for substrate
- Very efficient
- Subject to variety of cellular controls
Organic molecules that contain C, H, O, N and P
- A Nucleic Acid consists of repeating building blocks of Nucleotides
Nucleotides of DNA
(1) Nitrogenous Base purines- adenine A and guanine G pyrimidines- thymine T and cytosine C
(2) Pentose Sugar deoxyribose
(3) Phosphate Group
-Single strand of nucleotides located out of nucleus
-Pentose sugar in RNA nucleotide is Ribose
-Uracil instead of Thymine
- Messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA and Transfer RNA, each has a specific role to play as they carry out DNA's instructions for protein synthesis
Temporary molecular storage of energy as it is being transferred from exergonic catabolic reactions to cellular activities
- Consists of 3 phosphate groups attached to adenine & 5-carbon sugar (ribose)
Hydrolysis of ATP
(removal of terminal phosphate group by enzyme -- ATPase)
- releases energy
- leaves ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
Synthesis of ATP
- enzyme ATP synthase catalyzes the addition of the terminal
phosphate group to ADP
- energy from 1 glucose molecule is used during both anaerobic and aerobic respiration to create 36 to 38 molecules of ATP
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