145 terms

Primate Cognition Final

Primate Cognition, Dr. Graham
STUDY
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What is Primate Intelligence with regard to Social Intelligence
ability to keep track of interactions with conspecifics
What is Primate Intelligence in regard to Ecological Intelligence
ability to flexibly exploit natural environment
how primates can get the most out of their natural recourses
Ecological Cognition
all about getting resources
the things you need to survive and reproduce
Abilities in attaining recourses
Extractive foraging
FLEXIBILITY
a key in how we manage recourses
species that tend to be more flexible, tend to be more intelligence
UNIQUENESS
What is morphological extractive foraging?
Using one's own fingers to get food
What is cognitive foraging?
Using a tool i.e. a chimp using a stick to get food
What does "Survival Require"?
Food
Mates
Predator avoidance
Safety/Shelter
What is the "Classic View" on how primate cognition evolved?
It's all about understanding objects and spatial relationships. Primates uniquely cognitive nature evolved from the Need to find food. So Cognition evolved in foraging context
The problem with foraging:
often you have to find the food, and then alter it
i.e. cracking it open with nuts or processing pulp to make it edible
being able to find a resource and then make it edible
The classic veiw is clearly important, but we are now coupling it with a more cognitive developmental root too, so that food and the social aspect
What is Cognitive Development accourding to Piaget?
= Maturation + neural development + language development + social learning (or experience typically)
most of our "anything" on cognitive development in primates stems from Piaget in one way or another
What does Basic Knowledge include?
Space
the space you are in
Time
might include seasonality
have to wait for a fruit to ripen
Causality
take a stone, break a nut
= cause and effect
Objects
object permanince = things continue to exist when you can't see them (very important apect of ecological cognition)
What are two parts of Spactial cognition when talking about primates?
1. Cognitive mapping
2. Object permanence
Discribe Cognitive maps
Learn spacial layout of an/our environment
Locate resources (even when unable to directly see)
Remove need for direct perception
= spatial memory
Problem:
how do we test for this in animals that we can't speak to?
we observe their behavior
Do they need to see the fruit to know it is there?
Primates seem to be able to
What is a home range?
sizes between <1 km2 - > 50 km2
primate species live in home ranges (freaking duh)
over the corse of a day, you have a day-range
if you track those day ranges over the corse of a year, then you have a home range
if that species defends the boundaries of it's home range then we don't call it a home range, we call it a territory
not all primates are territorial in that sense
find a difference in home ranges based on what what the species size predominantly is
What is a day-range?
size ranges from <100m - > 10 km per day
how far they rome from when they wake up in the morning
What would a folivore's home range look like, and that does that tell us about thier cognitive abilities?
predominantly eat leaves -> only need a small home range (can stay in a tree and reach out to grab)
considered to typically be less cognitive bc they have less need (but this is not to say that this is 100% true and all Folivores are dumb)
What sort of thing would we look at to determin if a primate has the ability to cognitively map?
1. Remembering food location
Richest sites?
even in the same species, different groups of primates have food sources, some have richer food sources and some have poor food sources.
typically it is the groups that have the poorer food sources tend to be smarter because they have to be more adaptive and figure out how to get the food to stay nourished
2. Knowing where they are
Short cuts?
One way to get a handle on how well primates really understand an environment is whether or not they take short cuts
What is the difference between a home range and a territory?
Whether or not a primate chooses to defend it's it.
Describe Tinklepaugh's ("it's like a happy little sprite") 1932 experiment:
A Lab study between Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaques) and Macaca fascicularis (Long-tailed or crab-eating macaques Lab name: cynomolugus monkey)
This is a lab foraging task
Monkey watches while food is hidden in containers then the containrs (in this case buckets) are hidden in different locations
If you let the monkey loose, can he remember the location of the food?
HE FOUND IT! at about 80% accuracy
Monkey does less well when the containers are near each other (like placed near an empty one) but would go to the right area
after a 24 hour period monkey did very poorly
which shows that monkey was not really remembering
remeber that this was a very early experiment and that there is a little more sophistication now
Describe MacDonald and Wilkie's 1990 experiment:
Cercopithecus ascanius ("Spot-nose guenon")
8 possible places in an enclosure where food might be hidden (half of them basically have food)
The monkies are trained on two conditions:
1. When to stay (?)
the food is always placed in the same location for same monkey for each trial
so continuing to go back to the same location that food was found works to the monkey's benifit, allowing them to continuiosly win food
2. When to shift (?)
the food is placed in four of the locations on the first trial, and then on the next trial the food is shifted to the other four locations
the monkies pick up on this pretty flexibly, when you get them oin
Whithin either condition the monkies very quickly learn where the food is located, they are not just returning to the same place every time
It's not ust the case where the monkies are going back to the last place where they found food. They are also not just going to one location. They understand that there are four location on any given trial where they can find food
Why Important?
Not simple conditioning
authors argue that this is Flexible learning
authors also argue for Evidence of spatial memory
they are memorizing the distance between each point. Going to the closet food next so they can get more quickest way possible
What is the benefit of doing experiments in a lab setting?
can control and remove external stimulus i.e. don't have to worry about preditors or a monkey wanting to go off and copulate.
Can also compare what happens in a lab with what happens in wild primates
What was the experiment/observation that was noted on Baboons and mental mapping:
Baboons live on suavana (very dry) and need to find water regularly
Cool observation done by Sig(?) that shows that baboons have really good mental maps of vast home ranges (territories in most cases for baboons). They find the shortest route to the water and then speed up when they get close to the water source (even if it is out of site a bit) like "Oh boy I'm thirsty". Humans do this too. We speed up ever-so-slightly when they near their destination that we know is there. Baboons are also known to do this with their sleeping sites too (as do some of us). Shows evidence of mental mapping.
Squirrel Monkeys
Saimiri sciureus
are commonly used in labs and, relatively speaking, are quite sweat
Useful: Are omnivores; meaning there are lots of things they can exploit in their natural environments; fruit, isects, birds eggs, ect
Mate seasonally
live in large groups
Social, so can look at social structure
Pretty smart (For new world monkey)
if they had the intelligence of the Old Word Monkeys, they would expect them to deplete their food sources systematically rather than in a seemingly random ways (they tend to depleat sources at random whith no "systematic system")
not using cognitive mapping
Explain Roberts, Mitchell, and Phelps (1993) experiment
Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)
Fake trees in an experimental room are baited with food
When all the wholes are baited, Monkeys can find the food
However, When only some of the whole are bated, the moneys do not preferentially choose those wholes. In other words it's all a bit random on how they make their choices
When they put bitter food in there, they still visited the wholes haphazardly
No evidence of cognitive mapping in squirrel monkeys from this experiment
Explain Paul Garber, (1989) experiment:
Mustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) and Saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis)
looking at cognitive mapping in tamarins
eat just about anything includeing tree sap and gum
carniviours and arborial (live in trees)
have to eat quite a lot during the day
In this experiment the trees were about 90 kilometers apart
have to hop around to Gum trees that they can't see
three moddels
1. a random foraging model
a bit like the squirrel monkeys where they just go around at random and hop around their home enviorenment
2. a model based on olfactory ques
can they smell the food
3. and a cognitive mapping model
and the cognitive mapping model says that the monkies should visit the trees in a very systematic way, going to the closer ones first and minimising the distances they have to travel because travel is expensive in amount of calories (and travel is dangerous lots of things will eat tasty little monkies)
said to be a good show of cognative ablities in both species. They minimized the distance to get around their enviornment. Good example of a cognitive mapping moddle. Are using cognitive capacities to get around their enviornment
What are Piaget's Stages of Cognative Development?
...
Developmental Stage
Apes make A-not-B error (like humans)
Many primates succeed in stage 4 and 5 object permanence
This cognitive ability common to repertoire of all primates
Object permanence and displacement
(May want to delete this question
What is a tool?
Detached object applied to another object to achieve a result
should provide benefit to user
should get you a resource (typically food resource)
Should make the task easier
Tools have different levels of cognitive use
Woodpecker finch brake spines of a cactice and use it to go behind pieces of bark and pull out rubber worm or something
use this the same way every time, so no variability or flexibility or uniqueness
What three things are usually true of animal tool use?
1. Species-specific
not shared by different (or closely related) species
2. One tool, one purpose
limited to one purpose to a single tool
3. Used in same way
What was Beck 1980 experiment?
Caledonian crow
Crow watches research assistance make food
the crow waited until the research assistant was out, and then went to make it's own food by mashing up the dry food and adding water too it just as the research assistant had done
Would not have done this if not all of the tools were in the environment in the first place
Advantage + raw materials = evolution of tool use
What is one definition of cognition in terms of tools and resources?
the ability to make environment serve own purpose
Object manipulation & tool use
Object permanence
knowing it exists without being able to perceive it. kinda seen as the first rung
Object manipulation comes next
Then Tool use, remember: being able to manipulating something is not the same thing as using a tool
And then cognitive tool use
Comparitive study on Object manipulation
same age human, bonobos, and chimp
wanted to see at what level, cognitively, are three closely related species
human infant
spends 6 times more time picking up and manipulating objects than either the chimp or the bonobo. Also spends more time picking things up bi-manually
bonobo and chimp
much more likely to handle thing on the ground, with one hand, and from a distance rather than up close
Take home message: humans are much more manipulative and curious even from an early age
What is often noticed in primates that have a need for food processing?
Can demonstrate certain specializations or adaptations for those kinds of manipulation. Some of these specializations are purely physiological
What is symbolic play?
It is an act of pretense that we tend to think of as being limited to humans. It is difficult to assign acts of pretense to other species because we don't know what they are thinking, but there are anecdotal instances of this being seen
What did Jane Goodall observe for as an example of symbolic play?
Observed a young Chimp fishing for termites when there were no termites present, so either stupid chimp or playing pretend or maybe just playing with a stick
What was Coco the Gorilla's anecdotal instance of symbolic play?
pretends to be an elephant and signs the word for elephant
puts a piece of rubber tubing to the end of her nose and then signs the word for elephant
What may be symbolic play in sea otters?
will play with shells. mess with the shell as they would for food even though they are not the kind with food
What can be seen as symbolic play in Orca Whales?
They beach themselves as they do when they are hunting seals, but without purpose of getting food
Fashioned tools:
Can you take something in the environment and make it into something else rather than jut finding something as is and using it as a tool
Higher cognitive evidence
Hominids
What is the difference between a Naturefact and an Artefact
Naturefact:
Object occurring in nature and used by animal for another purpose
Artefact:
Object altered to make it a tool
What are the categories of tool use?
1. Reduction
simplest form
reducing the mass of a functional form
ex. take a twig, take the bark off, chew the ends off now it's functional in a different way
2.Conjunction
combining two or more elements to make a tool
flint headed spear is conjunction
hammer and anvil that some chimps use to crack nuts
3. Replication
"is really just conjunction with a little bit of extra dazzle"
two or more elements
like a double pronged fishing spear
4. Linkage
really "fancy pants stuff"
two or more physically distinct elements used together to make a really effective tool
ex. bow and arrow
What is an example of tool use in capuchins - Cebus apella?
Stones to crack nuts
1. Not everyone does it
2. Many don't "understand"
don't seem to comprehend the cause and effect of banging the nut
will band the ground by the nut, rather than banging the nut, and nothing will happen,
3. Some learn by observation
4. Captivity
both in captivity and the wild
Argue how congnative
very distructive by nature
have very large brains
Discuss tool use in chimpanzees
Variety of tasks
Longitudinal studies
Difference in predominant tool
may be cutural
all Chip cultures use different tools use (all have at least one)
4 main categories ...
1. Implement to extend the reach
Termite "fishing" (wild) / honey yogurt
2. Sticks and stones as weapons
will hurl sticks and stones at other chimps, animals, and monkeys (some chimps eat monkeys)
controversial
3. Objects to amplify force
Hammer and anvil techniques to open nut
this is a step beyond what the Capuchins do
Will see the chimps searching for the perfect anvil and then the perfect stone for a hammer
learn to do through observation over a long period of time
takes 4 or 5 years to master
4. Sponges
Roll up leaves to dip in water and drink
Pole vaulting chimps in captivity?
Use pole to get food
food put up high and poles given to keep them entertained
used pole vaulting to get the food, then to get out of the enclose
Escapees!
head to the food court
Skill common
What is an example given of bonobo tool use?
Nick Toth demonstrated flint-knapping...
Shows Kanzi that he can break the flint and then use it to cut rope and then get a treat
Kanzi is less dexterous and got frustrated
threw the stones and broke them
goal attcheeved
Toth carpets his floor so that Kanzi can't break the stone on it anymore
later ripped back the carpet and does it all over again
Premeditation and understanding
What were the examples given of apes (outside of chimps) using tools in the wild?
Gibbons ^_^
and orangs have been seen to drop branches and stones on intruders to their territories
"sponging" in gibbons. They drink water from leaves - sponge use
Gorillas = leaf detailed folding
Orangutans often use leaves as umbrellas
Bonobos will shake leaves in social display
What did Watanabe et al. 2007 study?
Temple maquacs using hair as floss
Metatools
using a tool to make a tool
double tool use "if you like"
chimps are able to combine tools in a Sequence
Kitahara-Frisch et al. 1987
chimps learn to use a rock to break a bone and then use a bone to reach the food or use a chip of bone to open a steal drink can
orangs and bonobos can also do this
Masuzawa 1991
Flexibility + complexity = cognitive
What about tool use in strepsirhines?
Reduced manual dexterity
Olfaction
investigative prowess based on olfaction
tool use limited by it's ecology
touch screen experiment with lemurs, it will stick it's nose on the screen rather than actually touch
Ecologically - relevant behaviors
Compare tool use in the 4 great apes, in both captive and wild:
Chimps and bonobos are closely related
but in the wild, chimps use tools more often, and we really don't see it much in bonobos
Orangutans
some in the wild, but a lot in captivity
Gorillas
lots of tools in captivity, less than anyone else in the wild (they also eat more foliage than the other great apes)
said that they need a lot more human intervention than the other guys
Compare tool use in humans and chimpanzees:
to really understand, must compare with human tool use
Chimp with Homo habalis
earliest tool use found in stone tools that we associate with Homo habilis
they are pretty crude, they lack a lot of symmetry
Chimps may have (arguably) just as much of a sophisticated tool set but they may not have survived (made of sticks which don't preserve unlike stone)
Homo erectus
~1.6-1 mya
Acheulian
Neandertals
~400k-30k ya
Mousterian
Homo sapian
makes tools pretty
It is considered than the more symmetrical a tool has been made to be, the more cognitive the tool is
Why is the key to determining the tool-goal relationship does and why does it actually matter?
Causality, and because it distinguishes trial-and-error learning from actual insight. It's the difference between haphazardly coming across a solution and actually planning it.
What do stone tools tell us?
Can make any argument!
Tasmanian aborigines
have a very similar tool kit to chimps, but used in different way
Symmetry
Homo habalis tools seems to lack symmetry, less pretty appears to lack design
Thought
we don't know if the thought construction is any greater or any less than what chimpanzees have
Based on the (1925) study, do chimps have foresight?
through play Cola (chimp) figures out that he can put two sticks together to get a banana
does not exhibit foresight, which is knowing what is needed ahead of time, but was able to figre out what was needed through play. He has an "Aha!" moment, when is different than foresight
What is culture?
System of shared customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of society use to cope with their world and with one another, and that are transmitted from generation to generation through learning.
trans-generational learning is really important
What is individual learning?
1. Gaining independence
2. Recognizing family/peers
Individual knowledge
What is social learning?
Process
Social context (observation)
if a chimp leaves a stone hammer and anvil
Cross species comparisons
1. Local enhancement
2. Stimulus enhancement
Reproducing seen behavior
May increase your fitness:
take advantage of knowledge
Pass on skills
Occasionally-occurring problems
ex. Drought
may only experience this once, but if it's your first time and you are with an elder then you can learn from the elder
What are behavioral traditions in humans?
In Humans:
1. Universal
practiced by everyone
2. Uniform
maintain similarity
3. History
modification across time
may apply to chimps, depending on how you argue it
Social learning in tool use in chimpanzees
each groups of chimps in the wild have there own cultural traditions with tools
chimps can pick up other groups traditions, but they have their own traditions with the tools
Culture/Proto-culture in chimps
sometimes called Pre-culture or proto-culture in chimps
Shared, learned behaviors vary between groups
Homo vs. Pan
For FORK'S sake! :)
ex. difference between English and American
we hold our knives and forks differently than British people, we hold fork in right hand (I use my left... for everything...) 10:45
Pan
Chimps in west africa use hammar and anvil for cracking nuts and in east africa they use sticks to fish out termites
Sweet potato washing
Imanishi, 1941
on Macaca fuscata - Japanese maquaces
looking at the social culture of macaques
Koshima Islet, 1948
Provisioning experiments
were wantin to remove the element of looking for food so that the researchers could get close
gave them sweet potatos
1953 - Imo
Washing
Imo would take the sweet potato and then dipped it in the water to wash it off and season it
Spread
After 5 years:
19% adults
79% 2-7 years old
Same deal would happen when they were previsioned with wheat (again is it this young female Imo) where they would have wheat washing station
Seems like the youner generation is adaptive at picking up this behavior
Transmision
From Imo
To mother, brother then others
6-10 years later, behavior is fixed
Natural environment
Water and sand present
Small island
Poor nutritional environment
Provisioned
Originator the, Imo Died: May 21st 1972, age 20, but the cultural behavior lives on due to Cultural Transmision
Stone handling
Macaca fuscata
They just like handling the stones
doesn't seem to serve any real purpose
Non-adaptive behavior that has been set
Bossou chimpanzees, Guinea, West Africa
First reported 1979
1. Nut cracking
learned by stimulus and local enhancement
if a chimp is going to be a nut cracker, he is going to do it by 5 and a 1/2.
Can't do it before 3 and a 1/2
2. Pestle-pounding oil palms
3. Algae scooping
4. Ant dipping
5. Leaves as sponges
can do by 2*?*
Critical period of learning
3.5-5 years old - crack nuts
1 yr: manipulate nut
2 yrs: two objects simultaneously
3 yrs: can use three objects in a sequence
3 1/2 yrs: first able to successfully crack a nut by themselves
What are the only species that are known to produce long-standing behavioral traits?
Japanese macaques and chimps
Numerosity
Pertains to number
How many things?
Number concept
Examples of "three-ness"
Same number, different things
Relative numerousness
requires that you understand that there is a order inheretedness
numbers have a specific order
example. 2 is different from 4
numbers have a specific order
Cardinality
To know/recognize absolute number
the number of elements in a set
The property of a set of objects
Final # also quantifies the numerosity of set
Absolute number (number of elements in set)
Ordinality
The ability to place objects in a series on the basis of a quantitative property (e.g. small to large)
Judging relative numerousness from numerosity to another within a series
Cardinality + Ordinality = ?
Numeracy
Numeracy in humans
Communication via language
verbal reasoning
Explanation
Piaget (Concrete Operation Stage)
7-11 years
Accuracy on quantitative understanding
Basic underlying properties
But what we are interested in Numerical thought without language
Expectancy violation Paradigms
One of the most commonly used types of experiments; in short, an animal should look longer when expecations are violated
Maques shown eggplant
Occluder (or screen)
the screen closes to cover up the eggplant
Lift screen
once lifted there are two eggplants
Monkey's mind is blown
Happens again
when repeated second eggplant is removed
back to one
Monkey seems to be blah about it bc that is what he was expecting
THen again
when shade comes back up there are now three
monkey's mind is BLOWN @(O_O)@
Do monkey's look longer when arithmatic expectations are violated
Done with babies as well
Human babies:
video with the elmo face
Number bias for the discrimination of large visual sets in infancy
How is numeracy/numerical cognition and how does it work in humans?
Mathematics
What evolutionary precursors of human math reasoning can be observed in other animals?
Comprises many skills
e.g. Symbols:
To represent numerosities
To represent operations
BUT! The most basic numerical skills DO NOT require ANY numerical symbols at all! i.e You KNOW there are more lizards than pineapples
What is Subitizing?
Looking at an array and knowing how many
Simplest form of cardinality
Humans - 4-5 things
Small numbers - Subitize?
it is possible that this is what we do
Large numbers?
different mechinisim for bigger numbers
What are examples of subitizing in animals?
Act on number
Pigeons trained to resond to array
Alex (gray parrot) "speaks" correct number words when presented with a set
How many blue corks?
When asked this Alex will reply with anserw
Number discrimination:
Racoons choose "3" from large array
Thomas 1980
Squirrel monkeys discriminate 10 from 11
Ordinal or pairwise
Explain Lewis, Jaffe, and Brannon 2005 experiment
Number discrimination
On Mongoose lemur
Procedure
Bucket with a whole near a false bottom
poset note placed over whole
Clipboard placed on top with 2 grapes
Lemur watches
Does he look for the second grape?
Accurcy dependant on ratio
Highly accurate 1:2
Inaccurate 2:3 and 3:4
Consistent with other animals
Cognitive machinery present in common ancestor?
because we use lemurs as an ancestrial model
how ancestrial primates may have worked
Control conditions
Odor control
1 grape in the bucket
6 grapes hidden
Area control
Half grapes hidden in bottom
1 whole grape ....
Lewis and Brannon, unpublished:
Similar findings in alternative food choice task
Worked with both Ring Tailed Leamurs and Mongoose leamurs
It is the ratio that seems to be important in this case
What are the different mechanism used with numbers?
Subitizing
for small numbers
Object file
Baby see 2 objects
Baby puts those two objects in a file
Accumulator model
What do we do with numbers greater than 3?
It is possible that we are keeping count as we go along
adding more number to an accululator model
Analog representaion of a number!
Sets of discrete stimuli converted to continuos magnitude representations before comparison takes place
Anaglog magnitude
Magnitude:
A number assigned to a quantity so that it maybe compared with other quantities.
Count list
Analog:
Represented by continuous variable
Relative rather than absolute sense of quantity/numeracity
Stinuli being understood in relative terms
Compare a with b to get relative understanding of size
Preverbal infants
given a choice any child chooses the larger amount of tootsie rolls
Weber's Law
The ability to discriminate two stimuli is a ratio function of the stimuli, rather than a function of the absolute difference between them.
Ability to distinguish between two things is based on the ratio between those two things
Ratio of 1:2
easy to discriminate
2:3
less easy
4:3
almost impossible becasue they are so close
Symbols
Mapping symbols onto numerosities
represent quantities
having a symbol represent a number is very abstract, we have to be taught these things
Manipulating numerical symbols
Teaching
Humans and chimpanzees
possible chimps are the only besides human that teach their infants
Matsuzawa's Ai experiment
Ai is a chimpanzee
Relating Arabic numerals to numerosities
Experiment: press screen in correct order
when she touches the screen with the symbole the screen goes blank so she has to remeber where it is
she is realatively successful
Location and knowledge
Why should we expect animals to be able to use number?
Everyday lives
Foraging
when does my fruit ripen?
which tree to choose?
the one with the most ripened fruit where others are foraging, or the one with less fruit but no other foraging there?
All animals must have some measure of quantity for recourses
Social lives
identify number of opponents
Keep track of conspecifics
number os those in the group
number of preditors
Monkey counting
Organization of enviornment
Monkey's represent number on ordinal scale
Monkeys should
Differentiate n vs m objects
Know that n+m>n
What do monkey's know about number?
Goal: Test knowledge of numerical order
Brannon and Terrace 2000
3 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
Trained to order numerosities: 1, 2, 3, 4
Trained in ascending order 1-2-3-4
2 monkeys are trained in this
Trained in decending order 4-3-2-1
1 monkey is trained in this
rewarded with squerts of juice in many cases
they dehydrate the monkeys so they are motivated to work for fruit juice
Stimuli
Ascending
Desending
in both cases they are not given the numerals, they are given a numerocity
Experimental set up
Stimuli presented on touch sensitive monitor
in monkeys home cage
Results
Initial phase: 40% accuracy
confident that they had not memorized these sets for 40% of the time
that is actually pretty good
Mechanism?
Possibility:
Assigned each numerosity to distinct nomilan category
Learned or arbortrarorly?
Can monkeys be trained to order numbers randomly?
Monotonic 1-2-3-4
Non-monotonic 3-1-4-2
Preformance dropped
Monkeys preceice ordinal relations
Phase 2
Pairwise comparisons
Phase 3
How would the order NOVEL numerosities?
All possible combinations 1-9
also give them one that is familure and then one that is unfamilure
familure and familure
then Novel and novel
What happened?
Asceding monkeys preformed at 75%
Extrapolate ascending rule to novel numerosities
Descending monkey preformed below chance
Idiosyncratic?
Decending more difficult?
4-5-6?
2 new monkeys initially trained on 4-5-6
more difficult
Results
Acending
poor at 1-2-3 trained set
Decesnding has simular problem
What does it all mean?
Orders each novel value with a representation of initial value of training set
(Novel values 3,2,1 or 7,8,9)
Start point in training is the numerosity to which monkeys compare all others. (anchoring)
Can keep going in the direction that they have learned starting from their anchor
so ascending can keep going from 4
desending can keep going down from 6
Results
Ascending and decending numbers
Ascending
the anchor is 4
so to continue on it is not an issue
same for descending
What is Distance Effect?
The distance between 1 and 2
=small
Distance between 5 and 9
=great
What are the Rules of distance effects?
1. Reaction time decrease as the distance between numbers get larger
1 5 = large distance
5 7 = small distance
2. Reaction time increases as the absolute size of their value increases
small distance, quick RT
Small distance, but larger number, longer RT
all about ratios
Explain cross-modal studies
looking at the something in a cross-modality, might be using audio stimuli, or visual stimuli, or something. So can you numerate if you hear the amount, as well as if you can see it?
Social Cognition Definition:
Processing of any information that culminates in the the accurate perception of the dispositions and intentions of other individuals
- Leslie Brothers, 1990
Forging Cognition Theory
Frugivory = larger brains?
Patchily distributed fruits - Larger home range
Spatial memory
Foraging groups
Complex foraging strategies = bigger brain?
- We expect to, but it's not perfect
What organ uses more calories than any other?
The brain-adult human 20%, kids 50%
Social Cognition Theory
Complex social interactions
Long term social relations change over lifetime
Varied repertior of socially-expressive behaviors
Keeping track of social relationships
Have to be able to Form alliances and remember them, have to know when to compete (food, mates), and When not to risk injury
Primates have complicated social lives
Dominance hierarchies
many groups reliey on these hierarchies. They vary from group to group. You need to be able to "know your place"
Baboons:
Juvenile males play with same-age-sex peers (same sex play can be bad for inbreeding) may be useful for assessing others strengths both physically and socially - Migration
Females play with babies
preferably daughters of high ranking females
Useful alliances can be helpful for relationships later on
Describe Machiavellian Intelligence
primate intelence is an adaption to complexities of social life
molded to be 'social' in character
aka:
social inteligence hypothesis
social brain hypotheses
social cognition
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
Political life = social life
secondary claim:
for primates, the structure of cognition or intellegence can be molded to be social in nature
so primates rely on their social interactions
-> if you can manipulate others, you will do well
-> you will get the most resources for yourself
Which came first, brains or sociality?
Unlikely that higher intel lead to selection for life in groups
Higher intel is a consequence of life in social groups
Environment supports increased groups size.
Increase in group size -> Increase in brain size
Does Brain size reflect on intelligence?
It may be the case, but it would be an indirect measure. It would be what is the size of the brain RELATIVE to body size. Body size and brain size share close allometric relationship (highly correlated).
Discuss how Body size and brain size are correlated
Elephant is really big and mouse is really small, but what are the percetages of their brain size?Mouse is small, but for it's size it's brain is big
Regrassion line:
predicts the brain size for an animal at a given size
FOr each specias, we calculate a "diff" score
If you fall above the line, then relatively larger brain size than expected for body = relatively smarter
below:
relatively small
Discuss Relative primate brain size and age
Primate order as a whole is larger brained than most mammals
Strepsirhines (lemurs and lorises) - within mammals, are about normal for what you would expect for mammal
Halorhines (monkeys and apes)- 2 x
about 2 x what you would expect for mammal
humans - 3 x
3 times what you would expect
Foraging vs. Social Cog
Folivores
larger body size
Guts are expensive
The idea is it is hard to maintain two large expensive organs, so large brain and large gut would be unlikely
Larger gut -> Large body
Folivores relatively smaller home range (don't need a larger one)
So if you are a frugivore or omnivore:
you don't need all that extra gut power to break down your food
smaller gut -> smaller body
Guts and Brains:
Selective adverting
Guts:
Gorilla > oragns > chimps > humans
Brain:
Human > Chim > orang > gorilla
Some argument on selection on body size, rather than brain size that leads to variations in the three species
Example
Gorilas
Coarser food; longer gut ; smaller home range; more conservative brains, changing less than body
Less corse diet; shorter gut; larger home range
Point:
size is not enough
Why do we look at the Neocortex?
Varies in size between species
Brain shows less change over evolutionary time, except for the neocortex, which has changed a lot
Strong selection for neocorticical expansion in primates
Neocortical function
Neocortex
Latin:
Cortex = cover; neo = new
Only present in mammals
referred to as "thinking about things part of the brain"
Neocortical enlargemnet
HOW MUCH it has expanded is a much better measure of how primates are specialized for intelligent cognitive manor
Primary and secondary sensory areas
Motor areas
Bigger in strepserines and halorhines than in other mammals. Among monkeys it is bigger in frugivores and omnivores. It is also relatively bigger in pyligumious than in monogamous (having to keep track of mates)
Does the Neocortex size match social environment complexity or social complexity?
Environmental complexity:
ranging area
Day journey
Fruit in diet
Social complexity:
group size
clique size
social network size
Environmental complexity undoubtably feeds into cognitive processing, but for primates everything is about social complexity
Social pressure if the driving force in primates for intelligence
Describe the importance of Self-recognition and the Mark test
The Mirror Test (Gallup 1970)
Is it Seeing itself, or seeing another chimp?
originally done on 4 adult chimps
initially reacted as a dog would, but after they got habituated there is a Change in response. They began reacting as they would to another chimp, then look behind the mirrow to check for existing chimp. Then began to inspect themselves
Mirror-mediated inspection
Is that our Impression or is it real?
The Mark test used to test this
Anesthetize each chimp so that they have No knowledge of the mark
The Mirror is given a mirror to check themselves. They touch the area of the mark more than any other area
Controls
Chimps that had never had social interactions were given mirrors, but never really got it
Replication
for socially razed chimps, but never really got it if reazed on its own which must have some sort of social interactions. Monkeys are much more likely to react as if they are seeing another monkey when they see a mirror
test replicated a lot, but also critisized a lot
monkeys tend to touch themselved a lot when they wake up anyways
Raises a lot of questions
if chimp can recongize itself, and you are confident, then how ethical is it to keep one in a lab or cage
papers on these
-Celia Heyes
What is Imitation at it's simplest form?
behavioral copying w/o realizing and benefit to copied behaviors (Impersonation)
Imitation
Debated
Hayes and Hayes 1952
home raised chimp, Viki
claimed that she imitated
Viki - putting lipstick on, tie shoelaces, brush teeth, mimicking one of the Hayes being sick and pretends to vomits
problem w this study = no data collected
really was just their pet chimp and
this is where Terrace's study came from w project nihm
Two spheres of imitation:
Birds
really good imitators
bird whistles
if they don't grow up hearing bird whistles they don't know to do them
this is not considered cognitive
Other animals
mostly primates
there are some study and some evidence to suggest that they do copy motor skills
primates are top imitators of the animal kingdom
WHat do you need to rule out as other forms of imitation when studying imitation?
Stimulus/local enhancement
observational conditioning
need to be able to rule out that it is this,
Example elephant training to shake head side to side
is cognative, but not imitaion, it is training
Imitation:
You learn SOME ASPECT about how to do a task from someone else
Why should it be difficult to copy a novel motor task?
1. Mental perspective taking
If your able to put yourself in someone else's shoes you will be most successful at imitation
How does an animal recognize when it's behavior is the same as another's?
Action/facial expressions
How could you make your preformance less prone to error?
2. Organization of serial actions
Trial and error
-> Fragments
-> Practice makes perfect
-> Copy a master
lowest level=impersonation
copying something without having any recogniztion of why you are doing it
Program-level imitation:
Copying at the structural/organizational level
Byrne and Bryne 1991
study on gorilla, complex leaf foalding before they eat thorny leaf
Are they:
Program level (structure)?
Do they copy every thing at each stage
Impersonation (specific details w/o understanding)?
Emulation (subgoals)?
in order to be able to copy you have to be able to emulate, you have to be able to get to the subgoals
They have to be able to do it without pricking themselves = 1 subgoal
They have to et rid of the thorns = another subgoal
The have to fold it just so = might be another subgoal
Emulation
Goal Emulation:
ability to identify goal of other's actions (in a task)
Different way to achieve same ends
example:
chimps tapping to get candy and then quickly realizing they don't have to tap
children will continue to tap bc they saw it done
Reproduces ultimate goal of the task
What was given as an example of imitation in parrots
"Ciao!"
parrot in lab calling out Ciao as someone leaves the lab bc they here the
program level imitation or emulation? idk
What was given as an example of imitation in dolphin
Will mimic sea lions
Milk smoke
story of a baby dolphin
sees guy smoking a cigar in aquarium, guy blows out a big plum of smoke
baby goes back to mom and nurses then blows out the milk as if it was smoke
What was given as an example of imitation in Chimpanzees
mimicking vomit noise
What was given as an example of imitation in gorillas?
human raised
doing the dishes
What does insight need?
Understanding of cause and effect
Understanding what others know/think/feel
being able to plan or stimulate actions w/o carryig them out in oder to solve problems by thinking
Cause and effect
not just primates, many animals
Assume causal beings
Philosophical argument
we assume that others have internal life's experience
Color-blindness
we use as an example
we assume that others see in color in the same way that we do. It would be hard to imagine someone who is unable to see in color
it's hard, almost impossible, to understand the mental state with others, even more difficult with other animals
if you see in color it is very difficult to understand one with color-blindness
Difficult
Imitation is...?
learn specific aspect of how to do a task for someone else
Impersonation is...?
simplest form of imitation
Behavior copying w/o realizing any benefit to copied behavior
Emulation is...?
copying the structure (subgoals) of a sequence
Can fill in blanks with trial and error
What are we able to see/not see in primates as far as what primates have for Theory of Mind?
We can see that Social relationships part of primate existence, that Behavioral reading is important for primates, Intentional communication is able to be seen in primates. Understanding others' psychological states, however, we are not as able to understand wether primates do this (outside of human). But we can look at other animals and see if they treat each other as if they have mental states.
What is Theory of Mind
'The ability to make inferences about others' representational states and to predict behavior accordingly'
-Lewis & Mitchell, 1994
Autism
is a Developmental disorder
1 in 88 people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder
Numbers rising
part of it is more accurate diagnoses, and part of it due to larger increase on spectrum of what is considered autism
also due to another factor that "has everybody spooked"
5 times more prevalent in boys
Spectrum disorder - affects people differently
Characteristics:
Insistence on sameness
Difficulty in emotional expression
Tantrums
Unresponsive to social cues
Attachments to objects
Experience sense differently
can have all of the above or just one
Brain-based disorder
ToM deficit
key in diagnoses
difficulty to put in place of others
False-belief
Egocentric?
can only really view the world from their own perspective (all kids do this, and at 13 or 14 teenagers also do this and that is normal, but ONLY being able to do this is autistic)
"Mind blind" (Simon Baron-Cohen)
What causes autism?
No known trigger
No single locus
no single gene that appears to explain
Abnormality in developing brain
May be hereditary
seems to have an hereditary component
Describe the Sally-Anne Test
A false-beliefe test
Sally puts her ball in basket and Anne sees this
Anne moves the ball into the box
when sally comes back she should look for her ball in the basket
Critical Belief Question
"Where will Sally look for her ball?"
Pass = if indicate initial location of ball
Fail = in indicate that sally will look in the second location
Development in terms of ToM in humans
Infants appear to understand pretense at 18-24 months
Theory of Mind 4-5 years
developmental date for passing ToM test
Juan-Carlos Gomes
know for working with Gorillas on mind
Understand humans as causal agent
says gorillas can understand that humans are causal agents
baby gorillas (18 months) can infer that a human can get them things like a banana that is out of reach
this doesn't necessarily that the gorilla atributes mentality to the human, but that the human is a tool
Homadrias babboon: perspective taking
two are male, other one is female
form harems
male very protective and wont let other males near his females
female grooming other male that is not her alpha
Experiments: Seeing and knowing
Chimps/monkey can choose advice of human in deciding which bucket contains food.
1. Human "guesser" leaves room
2. Human "knower" hides food under cup
3. Guesser and knower point to a different cup
Whose "advice" does the chimp take
if the chimp understands the knowledge of the humans, than he should choose the knower
most chimps pass this
mo
Results
Most chimps reliably ppick the human that would know where food is
Rhesus monkeys fail
Behavioral differences:
Rhesus don't aturally (or learn to) point
interpret starres as threats
Premack and Woodruff 1978
Chimpanzee shown film clip
Clips show a man that is cold with oil burner
given options to fix man being cold
hammer, candle, paper clip, and match
Chimps choose match, making it appear to have ToM, but IS THIS enough to say they have ToM
Accident versus malice
Chimp deprived of drink:
1. Trip and spill
2. Pour away
Both cases the chimp doesn't get what he wants, but who does the chimp solicit help from in the future? The accedint-prone or the malicious experimenter?
the chimp chooses the accident from experimenter
Intentionality
Malevolent from benign
Deceit versus teaching
intentional deception, intentional teaching?
We assume intention when profit from manipulation of others knowledge
Intentionality in deception
Someone (dupe) is misled by another (agent)
accidental behavior of agent
agent connects action and profit and repeats action in similar circumstances: intentional
Misleading the dupe into believing something is true when it isn't in order to gain profit = intentional deception
Intentionality
Consequence of an act and it's intention
E.g. Smug cats
can mews at the back door, you get up to go let it in, and then you come back to find your cat has taken your warm comfortable spot
Morphological deception
Eyed hawk moth, Smerinthus ocellata
bird fly by to eat moth, moth opens it's wings. Scares the **** out of the bird
not really intentional
Intentionality in teaching
Understanding a deficiency of knowledge, and remedies gap by teaching what need to know
Levels of intentionality
Zero-order intentionality: e.g. eyed hawk moth
First-order intentionality: e.g. smug cat
Second-order intentionality: "I want him to think X"
Second-order intentional deception: "(but) X is not the case"
Second order intentional teaching: "X will be useful for him to know"
50/50 split
on wether chimps have ToM between researchers
we have a tendency to be chimp-centric which is dangerous bc we are not chimps
people say we need more experiments, better experiments to determine wether chimps have ToM
need better ethogoly
need to understand the species better
What is Language
- A system for communicating
- Symbols build words
- Entire set of words = vocabulary
- Meaningful combinations of words defined by syntax and grammar
- meaning and comb of words defined by semantics
Mental Capabilities
- Mental state attribution (2nd order intentionality)
-what we talked about last week - ability to put self into someone else's shoes
- Mutual intentionality (speaker and hearer)
-if you can't understand that the person can hear you than you can not communicate
-Apes?
- they have the ability to sing to each other, so can they communicate?
Hardwired or learned?
- Big question: Is language a matter of learning?
- Is it "software" (learning)
- or "hardware" (brain)
Language areas of the brain
- Broca's area and Wernicke's area
Language comprehension:
- Auditory and speech information -> Evaluation of content words (Wernicke's area) -> Analysis of syntax (Broca's area)
Speech production:
- Content words selected (Wernicke's area) -> Grammatical refinements (Broca's area) -> Information sent to motor cortex
* when there is a breakdown in one of these areas we see impairment
Broca's Aphasia
- Paul Broca 1824-1880
- a.k.a.: Motor, Expressive, Anterior Aphasia
-Symptoms:
- Difficulty with grammar
- Non-fluent speech
- Agrammatical
- BUT: Auditory comprehension is much better than speech
Wernicke's Aphasia
- Carl Wernicke 1848-1905
- a.k.a.k. Fluent Aphasia
- Symptoms:
- Unable to understand the content of words while listening
- Unable to produce meaningful sentences
- Speech has grammatical structure but no meaning
Broca's patient:
- can name items but can't produce a grammatical sentience ... i.e. when shown a picture, they can name stuff about the picture but no meaning grammatically
Wernicke's patient:
- Comprehension is better than the production.
- when shown the point, can't communicate properly
Primate communication
- Olfactory
- Tactile
- very important, cementing mother child bond, grooming, social hierarchy
- Visual
- Vocal
- grunting
Scary Preditors
- Leopards
- Snakes
- Eagles
* Guineans (monkeys) have distinct calls for each of these animals
- other animals will start to understand these calls and will take the cues to run out of reach
- will run up trees when leopard call is made
- gown towards the floor when
Therropithecus gelada
- closely related to baboons
- scoot around on there "bums" so the bright red has moved from their bums to their chest.
- nickname "sacred heart monkey"
- large open country primates
- may exhibit the rudimentary elements of language
- they live in huge groups and chitter to each other
- 25:25
- "gossip is the ____ of language"
Noam Chomsky
- Born 1928
- Nativist Approach
- Children learn languages without teaching
- Innate
- "Universal Grammar"
- Children make specific errors
- Controversial
- not everybody agrees with Chomsky
Feral Children
- children raised by wild animals
- fall into one of two categories
- developmental issues
- abandoned, abused, and found dissevered
- then woven into local folklore as being raised by wolves
- unable to speak,
- must have been raised by wolves
The Forbidden Experiment
- What happens if you raise a child in complete silence/isolation?
- Legend
- Frederick II, Emperor of Germany (1211)
- "Natural Language of God"
- all children died in silence
- if a child does not grow up in language then they can not produce language
Language development
- Critical period of language development
- ~2-7 ends by age 12 (Critical Age Hypothesis)
- mind is able to soak up language at this time, a lot harder to be fluent after this
- Abuse
- almost always ends up being the case in feral children
- most experts claim that is their childhood trama that keeps them from speaking
- Exposure
Case Studies in language
- Saturday Mthiyane
- 1987, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa
- found stealing from local house (what monkeys do in this area)
- hated wearing cloths and was very violent
- assumed that he was raised by monkey
- not the case
- was abandoned
- theory is that an adult needs to be contributing to the development of a child before they are 7
- if not, not going to make it
- Deaf people in Nicaragua
- evidence for crtical age period
- no sign language for the death here at time, so were unable to communicate, but...
- Pidgins and creoles
- developed a pidgen or creole language in gestures that allowed to communicate
Huaman Language Development
- ~7-12 mo - begin to understand words
- ~12 mo - start producing words.
- in isolation for the next 2-12 months
- small "chunked" phrases: "bye-bye"
- ~ 18 mo - vocabulary explodes
- i new words every 2 hours they are awake
- 2-3 years - grammatical explosion
- All parts of language in place by age 4
History of language in apes
- Samuel Pepys - 1633-1703
- Speaking about a "baboone":
- speculated that apes could use signs
- Julien Offray de la Mettrie - 1709-1751
- 1748 - speculation

Robert Yerkes 1876-1956 50:00
- 1920's - chimps could not learn speech
- Sign language?
- 40 years later...!
- when people started trying
Why can't apes speak?
1. Not intelligent enough
- Outmoded/unpopular view
2. Inability to imitate or reproduce sounds
- True of species unspecific sounds
3. Vocal habits prevent them from speaking
- Apes are excitable
- but they show the ability to be calm
4. Apes' vocal apparatus not built for speaking
- hyoid bone/larynx/breath/tongue
Descent of the larynx
- as human children get older, their larynx descends
- in chimps, the larynx is too high
- Neanderthal reproduction
- said that Neanderthal could not be able make the vowel sounds that we can
- may not be correct
- proven wrong for chimps
American Sign Language and apes
- Apes could use signs language, but can they modify it?
Ape Language Hall of fame
- Washoe:
- first chimp to be taught sigh language (1966)
-Allen and Beatrice Gardner
- Early methods questionable
- a lot of the data was not recorded properly
- like w/ project NIMH, reports of a persons pet really
- was able to make signs, *** listen again
- Nim Chimpsky
- Terrace: VERY critical
- ....
- argued that they are used operative language to get food
- yes, he could use sings to ask for stuff, but he was doing it in a hap-hazard way
- Kanzi
- Bonobo
- Mum (Matata)
But Kanzi leanred
Kanzi
- Apes 0 critical age for learning
- By age 6 - 150 symbols ; understand spoken English
- Discrimination ability
Understanding syntax
Understanding syntax
- "Sarah put banana pail apple bowl"
- context
- had to be able
- teaching their infants
- Lana, Washoe, Loulis
- Washoe had a miscarrage and the researchers told her that she would get a new baby
- all sings of depression Washoe had dissapated
- when given her new baby, all signs reapeared.
- she had expected to be getting her baby, though she did except the new one
- taught her baby 17 words by the time he was 2
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