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310 terms

AP HUG Vocabulary

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Absolute Location
The definitive location of a place based on coordinates
Accessibility
The ability to reach a place with respect to another place.
Acculturation
The process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of another group
Activity Space
A daily routine where someone goes through a regular sequence of short moves within a local area.
Age Distribution
The distribution of different age groups in a population
Agglomeration
When many companies from the same industry cluster closer to draw from the same set of resources
Agrarian
pertaining to farmers, rural, agriculture
Agribusiness
The businesses collectively associated with the production, processing and distribution of agricultural products
Agricultural Density
The number of farmers per unit area of arable land
Agricultural Location Model
4 general types of economic and agricultural activities, categorized according to relative economic yield per unit area and perishability or difficulty of delivering products to market.
Ancillary Activities
Economic activities that surround large-scale industries
Animism
Local religious traditions, mostly from Africa and the Americas, in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers.
Annexation
Legally adding territory to the US or other state
Antecedent Boundary
When a boundary is given to a region before it is populated
Anthropocentric
Human-centered OR Ideas that focus solely on the needs of people without considering the creatures with whom we share the ecosystem
Apartheid
Racial segregation, a former policy of segregation and political and economic discrimination against non-European groups in the Republic of South Africa
Arithmetic Density
The number of people living in a given area
Assimilation
The incorporation or conversation of nutrients into protoplasm that in animals follows digestion and absorption and in higher plants involves photosynthesis and root absorbtion
Balkanization
process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Biodiversity
the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)
Biotechnology
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
Blockbusting
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.
Brain Drain
The emigration of highly trained or intelligent people from a particular country
Break-of-Bulk Point
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
Buddhism
System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization
Buffer State
A relatively small country sandwiched between two larger powers. The existence of buffer states may help to prevent dangerous conflicts between powerful countries
Bulk-Reducing Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
Carrying Capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Cartogram
The theory and practice of making visual representations of Earth's surface in the form of maps
Caste
a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth
Census Tract
Small country subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
Central Business District
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
Central Place Theory
A theory formulated by Walter Christaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations.
Centralization
To bring to a center, to concentrate by placing power and authority in a center or central organization
Centrifugal Force
Forces that tend to divide a country
Centripetal Force
Forces that tend to unite or bind a country together
Chain Migration
The migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community.
Chemical Farming
increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The development of higher-yield crops has produced: a 'miracle wheat seed" which is shorter and stiffer, less sensitive to variation in day length, responds better to fertilizers, and matures faster; a similar miracle rice seed, that was heartier and has increased yields; a high-yield corn seed is currently being developed.
Chlorofluorocarbon
any of various nontoxic, nonflammable organic compounds containing carbon, fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen, used for plastic foam, as a refrigerant, etc.: these compounds are thought to damage the ozone layer
City-State
An autonomous state consisting of a city and surrounding territory
Cohort
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
Collective Farm
under communism, a large, state-owned farm on which farmers received wages plus a share of products and profits; also called a kolkhoz.
Commercial Agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Compact State
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Confederation
A form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose
Confucianism
A philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture
Connectivity
the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
Core/Periphery
Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries.
Counter Urbanization
net migration for urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Contagious Diffusion
The spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place.
Crop Rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Cultivation Regions
regions in which large amounts of agriculture take place
Cultural Adaptation
Adjusting a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language
Cultural Convergence
The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication
Cultural Identity
Ones belief in belonging to a group or certain cultural aspect
Cultural Landscape
The human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society
Cyclic Movement
movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
Dairying
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Decentralization
Degree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy.
Demographic Equation
The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.
Demographic Momentum
this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. this is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Demographic Transition Model
A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
** HIGH BIRTH/DEATH (LOW) -> HIGH BIRTH,LOWER DEATH -> MOD. BIRTH/DEATH ->LOW BIRTH/DEATH
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Dependency Theory
States that LDCs tend to have a higher dependency ratio, the ratio of the number of people under 15 or over 64 to the number in the labor force.
Desertification
The process by which fertile land becomes desert,typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or agriculture.
Development
The process of economic growth, expansion or realization of regional resource potential
Devolution
the delegation of authority (especially from a central to a regional government)
Diffusion
the process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Dispersed Settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Domino Theory
the idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse
Doubling Time
The time required for a population to double in size.
Economic Base
A community's collection of basic industries.
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Edge City
City that is located on the outskirts of larger cities and serves many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized suburban environment.
Emerging Cities
City currently without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate
Enclave
Any small and relatively homogeneous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region
Exclave
A bounded territory that is still part of a state, but is separated from it by the territory of a different state
Entrepot
A trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties
Environmental Determinism
A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.
Epidemiological Transition Model
A model that shows a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model
Ethnic Religion
Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts
European Union
international organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members
Exclusive Economic Zone
area in which resources found up to 200 nautical miles offshore belong exclusively to the geographically bordering country
Expansion Diffusion
the spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange.
Federalism
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Filtering
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
Fission
the splitting of atoms which releases tremendous amounts of energy and is used to start the chain reaction of an atomic explosion
Food Chain
a series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy
Food Manufacturing
the mass production of food products from raw animal and plan materials utilizing the principles of food technology
Forced Migration
The migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will
Foreign Direct Investment
investing in United States businesses by foreign citizens (often involves stock ownership of the business)
Formal Region
an area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
Forward Capitol
A capitol city paced in a remote or peripheral area for economic, strategic or symbolic reasons
Fragmented State
A state that is not a contiguous whole but rather separated parts
Friction of Distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.
Functional Region
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion
Fusion
A nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
Gender Equity
a measure of the opportunities given to women compared to men within a given country
Gender-Related Development Index
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes
Gentrification
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
Geopolitics
The study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur
Geothermal Energy
Energy derived from the heat in the interior of the Earth
Gerrymandering
The designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular political party or candidate
GIS (Geographic Information Systems)
Collection of computer hardware and software permitting spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, used and displayed
Globalization
The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected on a global scale such that smaller scales of political and economic life are becoming obsolete
GPS
Global Positioning System
A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on Earth's surface with a portable, electronic device
Gravity Model
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other
Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year
Hajj
Pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the five pillars of Islam
Hearth
The region from which innovation ideas originate. Relates the concept of spreading ideas from one area to another
Heartland/Rimland Theories
**Rimland: Theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest
** Heartland: Hypothesis that any political power based in the heart Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually achieve world domination
Hierarchical Diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Hinduism
A cohesive and unique society, mostly prevalent in India that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices, and official institutions such as the caste system
Human Development Index (HDI)
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
Immigrant State
An immigrant state is a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants. Immigrant states are popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity. One example would be the USA.
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Intensive Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Intervening Opportunity
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
Islam
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah and that Muhammed was Allah's prophet. Based in Mecca, Saudi Arabia- birthplace of Muhammed
Isogloss
a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
Jainism
A religion of India originating in the 6th century BC and teaching liberation of the soul by right knowledge,faith and conduct
Judaism
The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of ethnic identity, and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live.
Less Developed Country
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement.
Lingua Franca
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Literacy Rate
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
Maladaptation
incomplete, inadequate, or faulty adaptation
Maquiladora
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
Market Gardening
the growing of vegetables or flowers for market
Mechanization
the process of replacing animal and human power with machine power
Micropolitan Statistical Area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Microstate
A state or territory that is small in both size and population.
Mineral Fuels
Hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil, or natural gas formed from the remains of dead plants and animals
Monotheism/Polytheism
Belief in a single God
Belief in many or several Gods
More Developed Country
A highly industrialized country characterized by significant technological development, high per capita income, and low population growth rates.
Mortality
Number of deaths in a given time or place; proportion of deaths to population
Multinational State
Country with two+ ethnicities within its borders
Muslim Pilgrimage
If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Makkah. (Mecca) They usually make the trip around Ramadan. This pilgrimage is also referred to as Hajj. It is important because Islam is one of the most popular religions practiced around the world.
Nation-State
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Natural Increase Rate
The difference between the number of births and number of deaths within a particular country.
Neocolonialism
the economic and political dominance of the least industrialized nations by the most industrialized nations
Neo-Malthusians
Present-day adherents to a position - established by Malthus in the nineteenth century - that population growth outstrips limited natural resources and presents the single greatest driver of environmental degradation and crisis
Nomadic Herding
The raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water.
Nucleated Settlement
a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
Overpopulation
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Pandemic
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
Pattern
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.
Perforated State
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.
Periphery
countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land
Place Name
the name by which a geographical place is known
Population Density
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
Population Distributions
the arrangement of a feature in space is distribution. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern (Used to describe how things and people are distributed)
Population Pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Primary Sector
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
Prorupted State
An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension.
Push/Pull Factors
Conditions that draw people to another location (pull factors) or cause people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region (push factors)
Quality of Life Index
a single number or score used to place different countries in rank order based on their quality of life. Various indicators are included, e.g. GNP per person, calorie intake, life expectancy, access to health care, number of doctors per 100,000 etc.
Rank-Size Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Rate of Natural Increase
birth rate minus the death rate, suggesting the annual rate of population growth without considering net migration
Redlining
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Refugee
a person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster
Reincarnation
belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
Relative Distance
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.
Relative Location
the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
Religious Culture Hearth
This is where most religions are born. Most major religions have come from the Middle East near Israel, but a few have come from India too. This is important to human geography because where religions are created, civilizations are too.
Relocation Diffusion
The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
Rural Settlement
Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism (ecotourism).
Sacred Space
place or space people infuse with religious meaning
Scale
the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it
Secondary Sector
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
Sect
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
Sector Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Secularism
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
Sequence Occupancy
Refers to such cultural succession and its lasting imprint proposed by Derwent Whittlesey
Shamanism
an animistic religion of northern Asia having the belief that the mediation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans
Shifting Cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Shintoism
Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Sikhism
The doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam.
Site
The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.
Situation
The location of a place relative to other places.
Sovereignty
government free from external control
Spatial Distribution
Physical location of geographic phenomena across space
Standard of Living
a measure of quality of life based on the amounts and kinds of goods and services a person can buy
Stimulus Diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Sustainability
the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
Technology Gap
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
Tertiary Sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
Toponym
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
Transhumance
A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures.
Unitary State
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
Universalizing Religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Vernacular Region
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
Voluntary Migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
World Systems Theory
Wallersteins theory of the core, semi periphery, periphery, and external areas. The core benefited the most from the development of a capitalist world economy. Semi perihpery was the buffer between the core and periphery. Periphery are states that lack strong central gov'ts or are controlled by other states. External areas are states that mainteained their own economic system and for the mosr part, remianed outside of the capitalist world economy
Zero Population Growth
a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
Agriculture
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
Autonomous Religion
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Basic Industries
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
Bulk-Gaining Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or has a greater volume than the inputs.
Business Services
Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses.
Central Place
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Clustered Rural Settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Colony
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
Consumer Services
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
Cosmogony
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Cottage Industry
Small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
Crude Birth Rate
The number of live births per year per 1,000 people.
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
Cultural Ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Culture
the body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition
Custom
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
Demographic Transition
the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Dialect
A form of language spoken by people in a particular region or group
Elongated State
A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
Emigration
migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
Ethnic Cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Extinct Language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
Federal State
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Floodplain
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.
Folk Culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Fordist Production
Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
Gender Empowerment Measure
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
Ghetto
During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Green Revolution
The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
Guest Worker
a person with temporary permission to work in another country
Hierarchical Religion
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
Immigration
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Internal Migration
Permanent movement within a particular country
International Migration
Permanent movement from one country to another.
Interregional Migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Intervening Obstacles
an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
Intraregional Migration
Permanent movement within one region of a country.
Isolated Language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Labor-Intensive Industry
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
Landlocked State
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
Language Branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
Language Family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Language Group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Market Area
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Metropolitan Statistical Area
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Migration Transition
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Milkshed
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Multi-Ethnic State
State that contains more than one ethnicity
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Nationality
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
Net MIgration
The difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants
Nonbasic Industries
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
Nonrenewable Energy
A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
Official Language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Outsourcing
The procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs
Pastoral Nomadism
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Pasture
animal food for browsing or grazing
Peripheral Model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Pidgin Language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
Plantation
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Popular Culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Post-Fordist Production
Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.
Primate City
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Primate City Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Prime Agricultural Land
The most productive farmland
Productivity
The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
Public Service
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
Quotas
Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year
Race
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Ranching
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
Range
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
Sawah
ricefield, A flooded field for growing rice
Self-Determination
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Service
Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.
Settlement
A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants.
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Sharecropper
a person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Site Factors
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
Situation Factors
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Slash-and-Burn Agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
Smart Growth
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and a preserve farmland.
Space-Time Compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
Sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Spring Wheat
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Squatter Settlement
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures
Standard Language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
State
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Taboo
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.
Threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Undocumented Immigrants
People who enter a country without proper documents
Zoning Ordinance
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community
Von Thunen's Agricultural Model
Illustrates the layout of different types of agricultural activities on the landscape, with transportation costs being the most important factor
** CBD, Dairying, forestry, crop rotation, enclosed field/pasture, grazing (Intensive to extensive)
Rostow's Stages of Growth Model
5 steps through which countries should progress in order to reach the end-goal of high mass consumption
Gravity Model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Reference Maps
Generalized map designed to show general properties
Thematic Maps
Emphasize a certain theme/topic
*ie. Rainfall
Isoline Maps
Maps which show lines that connect points of equal value.
Choropleth Maps
Maps that use shading to show variety
Dot Maps
Maps that use dots to show the presence/occurrence of a feature or phenomena
Large Scale
scale used on a map that focuses on a small area, ie neighborhood
Small Scale
Scale used on maps that focus on a large area, i.e. world/country map