A daily routine where someone goes through a regular sequence of short moves within a local area.
When many companies from the same industry cluster closer to draw from the same set of resources
The businesses collectively associated with the production, processing and distribution of agricultural products
Agricultural Location Model
4 general types of economic and agricultural activities, categorized according to relative economic yield per unit area and perishability or difficulty of delivering products to market.
Local religious traditions, mostly from Africa and the Americas, in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers.
Human-centered OR Ideas that focus solely on the needs of people without considering the creatures with whom we share the ecosystem
Racial segregation, a former policy of segregation and political and economic discrimination against non-European groups in the Republic of South Africa
The incorporation or conversation of nutrients into protoplasm that in animals follows digestion and absorption and in higher plants involves photosynthesis and root absorbtion
the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization
A relatively small country sandwiched between two larger powers. The existence of buffer states may help to prevent dangerous conflicts between powerful countries
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
The theory and practice of making visual representations of Earth's surface in the form of maps
a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth
Small country subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
Central Business District
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
Central Place Theory
A theory formulated by Walter Christaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations.
To bring to a center, to concentrate by placing power and authority in a center or central organization
The migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community.
increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The development of higher-yield crops has produced: a 'miracle wheat seed" which is shorter and stiffer, less sensitive to variation in day length, responds better to fertilizers, and matures faster; a similar miracle rice seed, that was heartier and has increased yields; a high-yield corn seed is currently being developed.
any of various nontoxic, nonflammable organic compounds containing carbon, fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen, used for plastic foam, as a refrigerant, etc.: these compounds are thought to damage the ozone layer
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
under communism, a large, state-owned farm on which farmers received wages plus a share of products and profits; also called a kolkhoz.
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
A form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose
A philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture
Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries.
The spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Adjusting a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language
The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication
The human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Degree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy.
The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.
this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. this is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Demographic Transition Model
A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
** HIGH BIRTH/DEATH (LOW) -> HIGH BIRTH,LOWER DEATH -> MOD. BIRTH/DEATH ->LOW BIRTH/DEATH
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
States that LDCs tend to have a higher dependency ratio, the ratio of the number of people under 15 or over 64 to the number in the labor force.
The process by which fertile land becomes desert,typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or agriculture.
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
the idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse
City that is located on the outskirts of larger cities and serves many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized suburban environment.
Any small and relatively homogeneous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region
A bounded territory that is still part of a state, but is separated from it by the territory of a different state
A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.
Epidemiological Transition Model
A model that shows a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model
Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts
international organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members
Exclusive Economic Zone
area in which resources found up to 200 nautical miles offshore belong exclusively to the geographically bordering country
the spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange.
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
the splitting of atoms which releases tremendous amounts of energy and is used to start the chain reaction of an atomic explosion
the mass production of food products from raw animal and plan materials utilizing the principles of food technology
The migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will
Foreign Direct Investment
investing in United States businesses by foreign citizens (often involves stock ownership of the business)
A capitol city paced in a remote or peripheral area for economic, strategic or symbolic reasons
Friction of Distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
A nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
The study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur
The designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular political party or candidate
GIS (Geographic Information Systems)
Collection of computer hardware and software permitting spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, used and displayed
The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected on a global scale such that smaller scales of political and economic life are becoming obsolete
Global Positioning System
A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on Earth's surface with a portable, electronic device
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other
Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year
The region from which innovation ideas originate. Relates the concept of spreading ideas from one area to another
**Rimland: Theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest
** Heartland: Hypothesis that any political power based in the heart Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually achieve world domination
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
A cohesive and unique society, mostly prevalent in India that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices, and official institutions such as the caste system
Human Development Index (HDI)
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
An immigrant state is a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants. Immigrant states are popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity. One example would be the USA.
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah and that Muhammed was Allah's prophet. Based in Mecca, Saudi Arabia- birthplace of Muhammed
A religion of India originating in the 6th century BC and teaching liberation of the soul by right knowledge,faith and conduct
The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of ethnic identity, and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live.
Less Developed Country
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement.
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
Micropolitan Statistical Area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil, or natural gas formed from the remains of dead plants and animals
More Developed Country
A highly industrialized country characterized by significant technological development, high per capita income, and low population growth rates.
If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Makkah. (Mecca) They usually make the trip around Ramadan. This pilgrimage is also referred to as Hajj. It is important because Islam is one of the most popular religions practiced around the world.
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Natural Increase Rate
The difference between the number of births and number of deaths within a particular country.
the economic and political dominance of the least industrialized nations by the most industrialized nations
Present-day adherents to a position - established by Malthus in the nineteenth century - that population growth outstrips limited natural resources and presents the single greatest driver of environmental degradation and crisis
The raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water.
a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living
the arrangement of a feature in space is distribution. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern (Used to describe how things and people are distributed)
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
Conditions that draw people to another location (pull factors) or cause people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region (push factors)
Quality of Life Index
a single number or score used to place different countries in rank order based on their quality of life. Various indicators are included, e.g. GNP per person, calorie intake, life expectancy, access to health care, number of doctors per 100,000 etc.
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Rate of Natural Increase
birth rate minus the death rate, suggesting the annual rate of population growth without considering net migration
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
a person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.
the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
Religious Culture Hearth
This is where most religions are born. Most major religions have come from the Middle East near Israel, but a few have come from India too. This is important to human geography because where religions are created, civilizations are too.
The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism (ecotourism).
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Refers to such cultural succession and its lasting imprint proposed by Derwent Whittlesey
an animistic religion of northern Asia having the belief that the mediation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
The doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam.
The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.
Standard of Living
a measure of quality of life based on the amounts and kinds of goods and services a person can buy
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures.
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
World Systems Theory
Wallersteins theory of the core, semi periphery, periphery, and external areas. The core benefited the most from the development of a capitalist world economy. Semi perihpery was the buffer between the core and periphery. Periphery are states that lack strong central gov'ts or are controlled by other states. External areas are states that mainteained their own economic system and for the mosr part, remianed outside of the capitalist world economy
Zero Population Growth
a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
An industry in which the final product weighs more or has a greater volume than the inputs.
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Clustered Rural Settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
Small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
the body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
Gender Empowerment Measure
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Metropolitan Statistical Area
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
The procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Primate City Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year
a person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community
Von Thunen's Agricultural Model
Illustrates the layout of different types of agricultural activities on the landscape, with transportation costs being the most important factor
** CBD, Dairying, forestry, crop rotation, enclosed field/pasture, grazing (Intensive to extensive)
Rostow's Stages of Growth Model
5 steps through which countries should progress in order to reach the end-goal of high mass consumption
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.