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Physiological Psychology Lab Practical
Terms in this set (52)
Extends from the cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) to the obex, and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Hippocampus (you'll never forget [memory] that there was a hippo on campus)
A major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. This structure belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, and in spatial navigation. It is located under the cerebral cortex (sub-cortical) and in primates in the medial temporal lobe.
A midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. Some of its functions are the relaying of sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness. The medial surface of the two halves constitute the upper lateral wall of the third ventricle.
One of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia. While it has long been associated with motor processes due to its role in Parkinson's disease, it plays important roles in various other non-motor functions as well, including procedural learning, associative learning and inhibitory control of action, among other functions. It is also one of the brain structures which compose the reward system and functions as part of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop.
A thin, triangular, vertical double membrane separating the anterior horns of the left and right lateral ventricles of the brain. It runs as a sheet from the corpus callosum down to the fornix.
Innervates muscles of the tongue. Involved in controlling tongue movements required for speech, food manipulation (i.e. formation of bolus), and swallowing.
located on the floor of the 4th ventricle
Participates in the processing of fine touch and proprioceptive information from the upper body (arms and torso).
posterior surface of nucleus (lateral to gracile nucleus)
Cerebral Aqueduct (of Sylvus)
Within the mesencephalon (or midbrain), contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and connects the third ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle within the region of the mesencephalon and metencephalon, located dorsal to the pons and ventral to the cerebellum.
A wide, flat bundle of neural fibers about 10 cm long beneath the cortex in the eutherian brain at the longitudinal fissure. It connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication. It is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of 200-250 million contralateral axonal projections.
Cingulate Gyrus (have conscious control of emotions)
A part of the limbic cortex, is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex. It lies immediately above the corpus callosum. It receives inputs from the thalamus and the neocortex, and projects to the entorhinal cortex via the cingulum. Involved with emotion formation and processing, learning, and memory. The combination of these three functions makes this highly influential in linking behavioral outcomes to motivation (e.g. a certain action induced a positive emotional response, which results in learning). This role makes it highly important in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. It also plays a role in executive function and respiratory control.
Part of the ventricular system of the brain, with one in each cerebral hemisphere. Each resembles a C-shaped structure that begins at an inferior horn in the temporal lobe, travels through a body in the parietal lobe and frontal lobe, and ultimately terminates where each connects to the central IIIrd ventricle.
A white matter sheet that continues ventrally as the internal capsule and dorsally as the centrum ovale. This sheet of both ascending and descending axons carries most of the neural traffic from and to the cerebral cortex. It is associated with the corticospinal tract, the corticopontine tract, and the corticobulbar tract.
Two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions, they are considered part of the limbic system.
Fornix (forget***if damaged)
A C-shaped bundle of nerve fibers in the brain that acts as the major output tract of the hippocampus. This also carries some afferent fibres to the hippocampus from structures in the diencephalon and basal forebrain. It is part of the limbic system. While its exact function and importance in the physiology of the brain is still not entirely clear, it has been demonstrated in humans that surgical transection can cause memory loss. There is some debate over what type of memory is affected by this damage, but it has been found to most closely correlate with recall memory rather than recognition memory. This means that damage can cause difficulty in recalling long-term information such as details of past events, but it has little effect on the ability to recognize objects or familiar situations.
carries motor information from the primary motor cortex to the lower motor neurons in the spinal cord.
A white matter structure situated in the inferomedial part of each cerebral hemisphere of the brain. It carries information past the basal nuclei, separating the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the putamen and the globus pallidus. It contains both ascending and descending axons, going to and coming from the cerebral cortex. The corticospinal tract constitutes a large part of this structure, carrying motor information from the primary motor cortex to the lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. Above the basal nuclei it is a part of the corona radiata, below the basal nuclei it is called crus cerebri (a part of the cerebral peduncle) and below the pons it is referred to as the corticospinal tract.
The bulbous portion of the brain stem directly under the cerebellum, formed mostly by nuclei on which descending fibers on the way from the rest of the brain to the cerebellum synapse, and their ascending fibers that reach the cerebellum via the middle cerebellar peduncle.
Rhinal Fissure [determines border for parahippocampal gyrus and fusiform or lateral occipitotemporal gyrus.]
The shallow rostral continuation of the collateral sulcus that delimits the rostral part of the parahippocampal gyrus from the fusiform or lateral occipitotemporal gyrus. One of the oldest sulci of the pallium, it marks the border between the neocortex and the allocortical (olfactory).
The parts of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb. With the assistance of the cerebellum, this structure controls all voluntary actions in the body.
Area responsible for many memory functions, processing of auditory information, contains A1 and gustatory cortex
produces melatonin--modulates sleep patters
located in epithalimus, near center of brain
Located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. This structure produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles.
involved in the control of motor functions in the body
travel from cerebral cortex and terminate in either the brain stem or spinal cord.
These descending fibers were the first of all motor fibers known to be involved in movement. The y are made up of massive numbers of descending motor fibers and they derive their name from the shape of these tracts at the level of the medulla oblongata.
attached to the bottom of the brain
This has the appearance of a separate structure attached to the bottom of the brain, tucked underneath the cerebral hemispheres. It plays an important role in motor control, contributing to coordination, precision, and accurate timing. Necessary for several types of motor learning, most notably learning to adjust to changes in sensorimotor relationships.
Primary processing area of visual information, contains V1
Superior Colliculus (VISUAL)
direct behavioral responses toward specific points in egocentric space
dorsal to the cerebral aquaduct
A paired structure of the mammalian midbrain. The general function of this system is to direct behavioral responses toward specific points in egocentric ("body-centered") space. Each layer contains a topographic map of the surrounding world in retinotopic coordinates, and activation of neurons at a particular point in the map evokes a response directed toward the corresponding point in space. In primates, this has been studied mainly with respect to its role in directing eye movements.
Exchanges signals regarding movement and body position, especially with regards to gravity.
Lateral Olfactory Tract
Projects to several target regions in the brain, including piriform cortex, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex. It is a narrow white band, triangular on coronal section, the apex being directed upward.
bottom of the 3rd ventricle
regulates homeostasis, sexual/reproductive behavior
A crucially important diencephalic region that lies at the bottom of the third ventricle. Anatomically, it is delimited as the region extending from the area just anterior to the optic chiasma to the mammillary bodies in the anterior-posterior axis. It is connected to the pituitary gland via the infundibular stalk that emerges from a small bump, the tuber cinerum. Functionally, it is involved in a huge array of biologically crucial functions, such as regulation of sexual/reproductive behavior, activity cycles/sleep, coordination of simple behavior patterns involved in feeding, drinking and fighting, attention to biologically relevant stimuli, translation of physiological need states into psychological states as well as in direct physiological functions concerned with respiration, circulation and digestion.
Trapezoid Body (AUDITORY)
Connects the left auditory cortex to the right ear and vice versa
caudal end of pons
Just at the caudal end of the pons, this represents the most important output from the cochlear nuclei to the auditory cortex. It is formed by crossing fibers that connect the left auditory cortex to the right ear and vice versa; on their way these fibers synapse in the superior olive, a major auditory relay nucleus.
Divides both the frontal lobe and parietal lobe above from the temporal lobe below.
processing of higher order functions (emotions, reasoning)
Processing of higher order functions (planning, behavioral regulation, emotions, reasoning) and contains primary motor cortex
the structure in which the right and left optic nerves converge and partially decussate (cross) to form the optic tracts
location: ventral side of brain (viewable from coronal view at bottom of brain)--caudal to the optic nerve
filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which helps to protect the brain from injury and transport nutrients and waste
consists of axons connecting the cortex of the 2 cerebral hemispheres
location: surrounding the lateral ventricles
the bundle of ganglion cell axons that passes from the eye to the optic chiasm
transmits impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye.
location: ventral region of brain, rostral hypothalamus
the part of the hindbrain caudal to the pons and cerebellum
function: helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing.
the part of the central nervous system in the vertebral column
function: It connects a large part of the peripheral nervous system to the brain
conducts motor information from the brain to our various effectors
It brings sensory and motor information to and from the cerebellum.
location: deep in the cerebellum
location: medulla oblongata, near the obex (more medial than cuneate nucleus)
one of the dorsal column nuclei that participate in the sensation of fine touch and proprioception of the lower body (legs and trunk).
Located in medulla oblongata, near obex (more lateral than gracile nucleus)
participates in sensation of fine touch and proprioception of the upper extremities
The point in the human brain at which the fourth ventricle narrows to become the central canal of the spinal cord.
decussation of sensory fibers happens at this point.
connect the cerebellum to the brain stem
ventral to the cerebellum and dorsal to the brain stem
help transport nerve impulses from the higher part of the brain (cortex) and the brain stem, or lower part of the brain, to other areas of the central nervous system.
location: the part of the midbrain that links the remainder of the brainstem to the thalami and thereby, the cerebrum.
inferior colliculus (AUDITORY)
a nucleus in the midbrain from which all ascending auditory signals project to the medial geniculate nucleus
is the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei in the auditory pathway, as well as inputs from the auditory cortex.
bulb-shaped brain structure derived from the telencephalon that receives input from olfactory receptor neurons
location: in the forebrain
medial olfactory tract
The olfactory tract is a bundle of axons connecting the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb to several target regions in the brain, including piriform cortex, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex.
location: It lies in the olfactory sulcus on the inferior surface of the frontal lobe
pyriform lobe/periamygdaloid cortex
consisting of the cortical amygdala, uncus, and anterior parahippocampal gyrus.
In sheep brain: located ventrally to the temporal lobe, directly beneath the Rhinal fissure.
Mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus
Important for recollective memory
located at the ends of the anterior arches of the fornix
medial longitudinal fissure
deep groove that separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain.
region of the cerebrum lying under the parietal bone
located at the back of the brain
processing sensory information regarding the location of parts of the body as well as interpreting visual information and processing language and mathematics.
medial geniculate body (AUDITORY)
A relay nucleus in the thalamus through which all auditory information passes on its way from the inferior colliculus to the auditory cortex.
between the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (AC).
elevated area located on the dorsal pons in the floor of the 4th ventricle.
lesions cause ipsilateral facial paralysis (facial droop)
In the floor of the fourth ventricle, the sulcus limitans separates the cranial nerve motor nuclei (medial) from the sensory nuclei (lateral)
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