83 terms

Chapter 26: Bowel Elimination

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A surgically created opening is a stoma or
Ostomy
The process of excreting feces from the rectum through the anus is a bowel movement or
Defecation
The excessive formation of gas in the stomach and intestines is
Flatulence
A _______________________ is a cone-shaped solid drug that is inserted into a body opening.
Suppository
The frequent passage of liquid stools is
Diarrhea
________________________ is the prolonged retention and buildup of feces in the rectum.
Fecal Impaction
__________________ is the excessive loss of water from tissues.
Dehydration
Gas or air passed through the anus is
Flatus
The introduction of fluid into the rectum and lower colon is an
Enema
Excreted feces is
Stool
An artificial opening between the colon and abdominal wall is a
Colostomy
__________________ is the alternating contraction and relaxation of intestinal muscles.
Peristalsis
The passage of a hard, dry stool is
Constipation
____________________ is the inability to control the passage of feces and gas through the anus.
Fecal incontinence
A surgically created opening is an ostomy or
Stoma
The semi-solid mass of waste products in the colon is
Feces
An artificial opening between the ileum and the abdominal wall is an
Ileostomy
People normally have a bowel movement
- Everyday
- Every 2 to 3 days
- 2 or 3 times a day
Bleeding in the stomach and small intestines causes stool to be
Black
The characteristic odor of stool is caused by
Bacterial action in the intestines
When you observe stool that is abnormal
Ask the nurse to be observe the stool
Which of these cause interfere with defecation?
Having others present in a semi-private room
A person who must stay in bed most of the time may have irregular elimination and constipation because of
Inactivity
Which of these would provide safety for the person during bowl elimination?
Place the call light and toilet tissue within the person's reach
Constipation can be relieved by
Increasing activity
A person tries several times to have a bowel movement and cannot. Liquid feces seep from the anus. This may mean he has
A fecal impaction
When a fecal impaction is present, it is relieved by
Removing the fecal mass with a gloved finger.
When checking and removing a fecal impaction, all of these are true except
All nursing assistants do these procedures as part of routine care.
Good skin care is important when a person has diarrhea because
Skin breakdown and pressure ulcers are risks
Why is diarrhea very serious in older persons?
It can cause dehydration and death.
If a person with diarrhea has C. diff, you should
Practice Standard Precautions and Contact Precautions
When fecal incontinence occurs, the person may need all of these except
Increased fluid intake
If flatus is not expelled, the person may complain of
Abdominal cramping or pain.
Which of these is not a goal of bowel training?
To give laxatives daily to maintain regular bowel movements
When bowel training is planned, which of these is
The usual time of day the person has a bowel movement.
When the nurse delegates you to prepare a soapsuds enema for an adult, mix
3 to 5ml of castile soap in 500 to 1000ml of tap water.
When you give a cleansing enema, it should be given to the person
Over about 10 to 15 mins
The person receiving an enema is usually placed in a
Left side-lying or sims' position
When you prepare and give an enema to an adult, you will do all of these except
Prepare the solution at 110F
When the doctor orders enemas until clear
Ask the nurse how many enemas to give
If you are giving an enema and the person complains of cramping
Discontinue the enema immediately and tell the nurse.
If you are giving a cleansing enema to a child, which of the following is correct?
A saline enema is used when giving a cleansing enema to a child.
When giving a small-volume, do not release pressure on the bottle because
Solution will be drawn back into the bottle
When giving a small-volume enema
Insert the enema tip 2 inches into the rectum
An oil-retention enema is given to
Soften the feces and lubricate the rectum
If you feel resistance when you are giving an enema
Stop tube insertion
When you are caring for a person with an ostomy, you know
The stoma does not have sensation and touching it does not cause pain.
Which of these statements about an ileostomy is true?
The skin around the ileostomy can be irritated by the digestive juices in the stool.
When caring for a person with an ostomy, the pouch is
Changed every 2 to 7 days and when it leaks
The best time to change the ostomy bag is before breakfast because
The stoma is less likely to expel feces at this time.
When cleaning he skin around the stoma, you use
Gauze pads or washcloths and water and soap or cleansing agents as delegated by the nurse.
BM
Bowel Movement
CMS
Central for Medicare and Medicaid Services
GI
Gastro-Intestinal
ID
Identification
IV
Intravenous
ML
Milliliter
Oz
Ounce
SSE
Soapsuds Enema
When observing stool, what should be reported to the nurse?
- Color
- Amount
-Presence of mucus
- Signs of bleeding
- Odor
- Shape and consistency
- Time person had a BM
- Frequency of defecation
- Complaints of pain or discomfort
What three food groups are high in fiber?
- Fruits
- Vegetables
- Whole-grain cereals and breads
Name 6 gas-forming foods.
- Onions
- Beans
- Cabbage
- Cauliflower
- Radishes
- Cucumbers
Drinking warm fluids such as coffee, tea, hot cider, and warm water will increase _____________________.
- Peristalsis
If you are delegated to remove fecal impaction, what observations should you report and record?
- Color, amount, consistency, and odor of feces
- Signs of bleeding
- Complaints of pain or discomfort
- How the person tolerated the procedure
When checking and removing impactions, the vagus nerve may be stimulated. Why is this dangerous?
- It can slow the heart rate; the heart rate can slow to unsafe levels in some persons.
How will dehydration affect these?
-Skin is pale, flushed, and dry
- Urine is dark and scant (oliguria)
- Blood pressure is falling or decreased
- Pulse and respiration are Increased
Flatulence may be caused when a tense or anxious person _____________ while eating and drinking.
- swallows air
When a nurse inserts a suppository, how soon would you expect the person to defecate?
- In about 30 minutes
Before giving an enema, make sure that
- Your state allows you to perform the procedure
- The procedure Is in your job description
- You have the necessary education and training
- You review the procedure with the nurse
- A nurse is available to answer questions and to supervise you.
After giving an enema, what should be reported and recorded?
- The amount of solution given
- Bleeding or resistance when inserting the tube
- How long the person retained the enema solution
- Color, amount, consistency, shape, and odor of stool
- Complaints of cramping, pain, or discomfort
- Complaints of nausea or weakness
- How the person tolerated the procedure
Because it is likely you will have contact with stool while giving an enema, you should follow __________________ and _____________________.
- Standard Precautions; the Bloodborne Pathogen Standard
How can cramping be prevented during an enema?
- Use the correct water temperature.
- Give the solution slowly.
How long does it usually take for a tap water, saline, or soapsuds enema to take effect?
- 10 to 20 minutes
A small-Volume enema contains _______________ of solution.
- 120 mL (4 ounces)
A person should retain a small-volume enema
- Until there is an urge to defecate, usually 5 to 10 minutes
When you start to insert the tube to five an enema, ask the person to _______________________.
- Take deep breaths through the mouth
What can you place in the ostomy pouch to prevent odors?
- Deodorant
Showers and baths are delayed 1 or 2 hours after applying a new pouch to allow
- The adhesive time to stick to the skin
If your state allows a nursing assistant to insert suppositories, you may be allowed to insert them in a person who ________________________. You are not allowed to give a suppository for _________________.
-Receive them regularly for constipation
- fever or vomiting
When the person needs to have a bowel elimination, you can provide comfort and privacy when you
- Ask others to leave the room.
- Close doors, curtains, and window coverings.
- Turn on water or music to mask sounds.
- Cover the person.
- Allow the person enough time. Place a call light nearby and instruct the person to call if help is needed.
- Knock before entering. Tell the person who you are. Ask the person if you may enter before opening the door completely.
- Use an agency-approved spray for odors.
Which colostomy will have the most solid and formed stool?
- Sigmoid colostomy
Which colostomy will have the most liquid stool?
- Ascending colostomy
Which colostomy is a temporary colostomy?
-Double-barreled colostomy