52 terms

Chapter 4 (Friedland)

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Climate
the average weather that occurs in a region over a long period of time
Weather
the short-term condition of the atmosphere in a local area, which include temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation and wind speed
Troposphere
a layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of the earth, extending up to approximately 16 km. Bad ozone can be formed here.
Stratosphere
the layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50 km above the surface of earth. This is where the good ozone is that protects us from UV radiation.
Albedo
the percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface
Saturation point
the maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature
Adiabatic cooling
the cooling effect of reduced pressure on air it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands
Adiabatic heating
the heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of the earth and decreases in volume
Latent heat release
the release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water
Atmospheric convection current
global patterns of air movement that are initiated by the unequal heating of earth
Hadley cell
a convection current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30 N and 30 S
Inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
the latitude that receives the most intense sunlight , which causes the ascending branched of the two Hadley cells to converge
Polar cell
a convection current in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60 N and 60 S and sinks at poles 90 N and 90 S
Ferrell cell
a convection current in the atmosphere that lies between Hadley cells and polar cells
Coriolis effect
the deflection of an object's path due to the rotation of earth
Rain shadow
a region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the oceans causing precipitation on the windward side
Gyre
a large scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere
Upwelling
the upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents
Thermohaline circulation
an oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water
El Nico-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
a reversal of wind and water currents in the South Pacific
Terrestrial biome
a geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land
Aquatic biome
an aquatic region characterized by a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow
Tundra
a cold and treeless biome with low growing vegetation
Permafrost
an impermeable, permanently frozen layer of soil
Boreal forest
a forest biome made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons
Temperate rainforest
a coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures by moderate temperatures and high precipitation.
Temperate seasonal forest
A biome with warm summers and cold winters with over
1 m (39 inches) of precipitation annually.
Woodland/shrubland
A biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.
Temperate grassland/cold desert
A biome characterized by cold, harsh winters and hot, dry summers.
Tropical rainforest
A warm and wet biome found between 20 degrees North and 20 degrees South of the equator, with little seasonal temperature variation and high precipitation.
Tropical seasonal forest/savanna
A biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons.
Subtropical desert
A biome prevailing at approximately 30 degrees North and 30 degrees South, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation.
Littoral zone
The shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants go.
Limnetic zone
A zone of open water in lakes and ponds.
Phytoplankton
Floating algae.
Profundal zone
A region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes.
Benthic zone
The muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean.
Oligotrophic
Describes a lake with a low level of productivity.
Mesotrophic
Describes a lake with a moderate level of productivity.
Eutrophic
Describes a lake with a high level of productivity.
Freshwater wetlands
An aquatic biome that is submerged or saturated by water for at least part of each year, but shallow enough to support emergent vegetation.
Salt marsh
A marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along the coast in temperate climates.
Mangrove swamp
A swamp that occurs along tropical and subtropical coasts, and contains salt tolerant trees with roots submerged in water.
Intertidal zone
The narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide.
Coral reef
The most diverse marine biome on Earth, found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline.
Coral bleaching
A phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white.
Open ocean
Deep ocean water, located away from the shoreline where sunlight can no longer reach the ocean bottom.
Photic zone
The upper layer of ocean water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis.
Aphotic zone
The deeper layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis.
Chemosynthesis
A process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide.
Tropospheric ozone (Bad ozone nearby)
occurs when nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight. Hint: O3
Eutrophication
A process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria.
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