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World Civ. Test Chapter 14
Terms in this set (81)
Age of Faith
a new religious feeling that was born
a practice which the Bishop sold positions in the church
a city in France; the monastery was found here in 910
a monk or nun of an order founded in 1098
the Pope's group of advisers; acted as a court and developed Canon Law
founded by Dominic, a Spanish priest; a group of friars; one of the earliest orders (of friars)
St. Frances of Assisi
founded the Franciscan order for women and the Franciscan friars
the name for the order of the women founded by St. Frances of Assisi and Clare
a style of churches that were built in; round arches, heavy roofs and walls, and pillars
a new style of architecture; evolved through medieval Europe; had a flying buttress and had thin walls, and a thin roof
issued a call for "holy war" after threats on Constantinople
the "holy war" to gain control of the Holy Land
France, Bohemia, Germany, England, Italy, Scotland, and Spanish peoples; ill prepared for war
Muslim leader and Kurdish warrior; gained Jerusalem and shocked the Europeans
Richard the Lion-hearted
English king; part of the 3 crusade (only man who stayed fighting) Henry II son
1212; thousands of children sent out to get Jerusalem; fought each other; on the way 1st ship sinks and the other ship goes to Alexandria and sells into slavery
long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain
a court held by the Church to suppress heracy
people whose religious beliefs differed from the teachings of the church
Christian pilgrims were allowed in Jerusalem with no weapons
What did the truce state about Christian pilgrims and where they could go after the Muslims captured Jerusalem?
Nicolas of Colagne
Who gathers all the children for the Children's Crusade?
What was one of the lasting effects of the crusades that opened up between countries?
the beginning of the Renaissance
What was the result of wealth after cultural diffusion occurred?
return to the basic principles of the Christian religion
What did the reformers want to do in Cluny, France?
religious and economic motives
What was the main idea that started the crusades?
Europe was was conquered, reconquered, and multiple groups occupied the area
What did the Crusades and religious reform say about Europe?
What figure grew weaker in Europe during the Crusades?
a system where there would be three fields instead of two; this allowed farmers to grow crops on 2/3 of the land each year, not just half of it; two fields would be planted, and one would rest for a year
the everyday language of the homeland; used by poets
schoolmen; Thomas Aquinas and his fellow scholars who had met at the universities were considered this
an organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members; first were merchant
wrote "The Divine Comedy" (1308-1314) in Italian; still read today; brought literature to people
last names; many traces these names back to an occupation in medieval Europe
wrote "The Canterbury Tales" (1386-1400) in English; still read today; brought literature to people
merchant-class town dwellers; resented the interference in trade and commerce; organized and demanded privileges; at times would fight against landlord and won right by force
Christine de Pisan
wrote "The Book of The City Ladies" (1405) in French; still read today; brought literature to people
originally referred to a group of scholars meeting wherever they could
a scholar who argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument; wrtoe the "Summa Theologicae" which was influenced by Aristotle; used his knowledge along with the scholastics to debate topics of their time
trade grew, finance problems decreased because more money was coming in and bills of exchange were easier
How did the agriculture affect trade and finance in Europe?
How did improving farming methods change social order?
the knowledge of living, translating more pieces into common languages, and having libraries
How did the Arabs influence the revival of learning in Europe?
What role did Jews and Muslims play in Europe's financial revolution?
Alfred the Great
an Angelo-Saxon king from 871-899; managed to take back the Vikings; united the kingdom under one rule
an English king; added holdings by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine; brought large territory
an undistinguished duke from the middle of France; came into power after Louis the Sluggard died; began the Capetian Dynasty
the Danish king Canute conquered England; molded the Angelo-Saxons ad the Viking into one
Eleanor of Aquitaine
married Henry II; helped Henry obtain land named Aquitaine
one of the most powerful Capetians; ruled from 1180-1223; set out to weaken the power of the English kings in France
an English king; needed to raise taxes fro war, so he summoned two burgesses; parliament became a part of the royal tools that weakened the great lords
the rulings of England's royal judges formed a unified body of a law
Philip's grandson; ruled from 1226-1270; was pious and saintly; known as the ideal king; became a saint after death
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy; claimed the English crown and invaded England with a Norman army; rival was Harold Godwinson; fought in the Battle of Hastings against the Angelo-Saxons; claimed all of England as his personal property
Richard the LionHearted's brother; gained the English throne; lost land to Philip Augustus in 1204
the meeting between the First Estate, the Church; the Second Estate, the great lords; and the Third Estate, those who participated in the council
William the Conqueror's rival; an Angelo-Saxon who claimed the throne; fought against the Normans in the Battle of Hastings and died after being pierced in the eye
the most celebrated document in English history; forced John to agree to this document on June 15,1215; drawn up by the English nobles and reluctantly approved by King John, guaranteed certain basic political rights
Battle of Hastings
the war between the Angelo-Saxons, led by Harold Godwinson, and the Normans, led by their rival, William the Conqueror; Normans won and declared land theirs
citizens if wealth and property came to serve as this legislative group; part of the royal tools
attempted to enforce papal authority on kings; prepared a document when King Philip IV responded stating that kings must always obey popes
an Englishman who challenged papacy; preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the Church; taught the Bible; believed no clergy should own land or wealth
The Hundred Years' War
the war that Edward III launched for the throne continued on and off from 1337-1453. This later became known as The Hundred Years' War; this war brought a change of style in warfare
a French king who collided with Pope Boniface VIII over papal authority
a professor in Bohemia who taught the authority of the Bible was higher than the pope; excommunicated in 1412; burned at stake after being seized by Church leaders
this battle occurred on August 26,1346; one of three significant battles; English won even though they were greatly outnumbered
one of three significant battles; English victory in 1415; created doom for chivalric warfare
Council of Constance
in 1414 this council attempted to end the Great Schism by choosing a single pope; this created a total of 3 popes
a cheap, easy to carry, and deadly weapon; called the "machine gun of the Middle Ages"; could pierce through armor
College of Cardinals
a group who was persuaded by Philip to choose a French archbishop as the new pope; chose a successor after Pope Gregory XI died
a period of time where 1/3 of Europe's population was destroyed due to a deadly illness; struck multiple countries
Joan of Arc
a teenage French peasant girl who felt moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors; had visions and heard voices of the saints
the division of the Church; caused by two popes who didn't like each other and wanted to excommunicate the other
grandson of Philip IV who claimed the right to the French throne and started the Hundred Years' War
loss of prestige
How did the bubonic plague and the Great Schism affect the Church?
slower trade and food supply
What were the economic effects the bubonic plague brought on?
What ended the Age of Chivalry?
pierce through armor and knock a knight down
What was a main positive aspect of the longbow that gave the English an advantage?
Pope Gregory VII
Who banned lay investiture?
What was an important factor for the Dominicans?
increased royal power against nobility
How were Model Parliament and Estates-General similar?
the governing of widespread lands
What were the French and English hoping to achieve by centralizing a government?
religion, war, the plague, and disputes
What was stopping the English and French from creating a centralized government?
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