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AP Biology Review Flashcards Big IDEA 1
Based on the needed knowledge for the new test format...some websites to remember to look at are... Endosymbiotic Theory: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/organelles/
Terms in this set (33)
New species form when 2 populations diverge from a common ancestor and become reproductively isolated
Conserved universal similarities between all forms of life
RNA, DNA, and Metabolic Pathways
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts were prokaryotic cells that evolved to permenantly live in cells to the point where they cannot survive on their own anymore today. When they were eaten (Phagocytosis) by the eukaryotes, eventually formed a symbiotic relationship with them and formed what are known today as plant and animal cells..
Natural Selection is the major...
mechanism for evolution.
5 other ways evolution can occur
Mutations in DNA
Sexual Selection (Non Random Mating)
Small Population Size
Artificial Selection (Humans)
When humans decide what species they want, examples are...
Lack of genetic variation in crops
Individuals with desired phenotypes for environment/mating/survival are able to live long enough to spread their genotypes which can be measured by reproductive success (How many offspring live to adulthood and reproduce also)
Hardy Weinburg Equillibrium Conditions
No Mutation, random mating, no natural selection, extremely large population size, no gene flow.
Hardy Weinburg Equation
P squared= Frequency of Dominant Pheno or Geno types
Q squared=Frequency of Recessive P/G Types
P= Frequency of Dominant Allele
Q=Frequency of Recessive Allele
Human Impact (Artifical Selection and Overuse of Antibiotics)
Environment (Drastic changes)
Natural Selection chooses suitable phenotypes in these three scenarios though the use of...
Explain how Peppered Moths are examples of phenotype choices can have a huge impact on the increase or decrease of population
When the Industrial Revolution polluted a forest, Peppered moths were white with very few spots, which significantly reduced the population because the trees were black with soot and the ones with the least spots were eliminated. Ones with more spots had a higher chance of survival and within a couple of decades, the moths became black to adapt to the envi.
Overuse of Antibiotics
When humans use an over abundance of antibiotics, eventually the bacteria/virus it is trying to become immune to has a mutation that can survive the immune system, which can be very deadly in some cases.
No one leaves over a course of generations and it allows alleles to be changed over time; this occurs in small populations.
When members of populations emigrate and immigrate to other populations to spread their DNA
Remains of structures used a long time ago that aren't needed anymore. (i.e tailbones in humans)
features shared through common ancestry
(i.e bat wings and human elbows)
many animals have similar fetuses to the point where you cannot tell until late into pregnancy what species is.
Evidence for Evolution
Embryo Studies, Homologous structures, and Vestigial structures.
The universal features/processes found in most known organisms
DNA , almost all organisms follow the genetic code
Metabolic Pathways are in all recognized living systems
What evidence shows that all Eukaryotes are similar
Membrane Bound Organelles (mito./chloro. from Endosymbiotic theory)
Endomembane systems (i.e Nuclear Envelope)
This type of graphical representation shows what traits are derived or lost due to evolution (i.e Absence of legs in some sea animals)
2 Ways that Speciation Occurs when 2 populations become reproductively isolated from one another
Physical barriers (i.e Mountains, Barriers, Volanic erruptions)
Pre and post zygotic mechanisms
Pre and Post Zygotic Mechanisms
POST: Offspring cannot mate being sterile (Genotype) or considered unattractive to other members of the population (Phenotype)
PRE: Egg is not able to be fertilized by sperm=no offspring
Plants can change their number of chromosomes and be ok, but when humans have extras, this leads to down syndrome.
Bugs resisting Pesticides and Bacteria resisting Antibiotics in order to evolve
Primitive Earth provided...
the materials that could have synthesized organic molecules with the presence of free energy (the sun)...simple monomers evolved into amino acids and so on.
RNA World Theory
That RNA could have been a primitive form of DNA since DNA is much more complex than RNA
Miller Stanley Experiment
In the 1950s, Stanley Miller conducted an experiment that proved that organic molecules could have evolved from inorganic compounds with the help of the sun
DNA provides evidence that all organisms...
share common ancestral orgin of life
cells able to capture free energy through photosynthesis and chemosynthesis without having to move
traps free energy present in sunlight and is used to produce carbs from CO2
Programmed cell death to prevent malfunctioning cells from reproducing (Cancer)
Membranes allow Cells to
create and maintain internal environments that differ from external environments
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