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cell structure and function study guide
Terms in this set (64)
stores and protects DNA
breaks down viruses and bacteria and old cell parts(animals only); "suicide sacs" (vesicles with digestive enzymes)
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
"packages" proteins, sorts and delivers, tags them where to go: vesicles come off golgi; "post office"
rough endoplasmic reticulum
makes lipids and proteins(studded with ribosomes)
fills space in cell, helping keep its shape
protects cell, keeps in organelles, lets only some molecules in and out (made of phospholipids, still in plant cell, but in wall)
cell's powerhouse, converts sugar and oxygen into energy (processes sugars)
assist cytoskeleton, transport organelles, assist cell division (cilia and flagella); made of tubulin proteins
makes microtubules (animals only)
DNA, contains genetic code of cell
protects, supports, shapes cell (made of cellulose) (plants only)
photosynthesis, chlorophyll makes plants green (plants only)
stores water and nutrients, break down waste, keeps plant's shape (plants only)
layer around nucleus that protects it, pierced with pores allowing large molecules in and out of nucleus.
supports cell structure, made of microtubules
group of organelles that do the same thing
fluid mosaic model
cell membrane is flexible fluid-like lipid(phospholipids) embedded with mosaic of other molecules
phosphate and glycerol head, fatty acid tail; polar molecule: head is hydrophilic and goes to outside and tail is hydrophobic and stays inside; forms double layer of molecules; unsaturated fatty acids used bc they have double C-C bonds, creating a "kink" that allows smaller molecules to get through.
lets some things in but not others(small and some big), assist in homeostasis, in animals and plants
what is the difference in shape of plant and animal cells
plants are rectangular and animals are round
form channels through membrane to allow specific big molecules in
(energy, low to high); transport molecules squeeze molecule through
(no energy, con grad)
fluid moves from high concentration to low concentration
diffusion of water
large molecules move from high to low through transport proteins
membrane engulfs cell; phagocytosis- cell eating
membrane of vesicle combines with membrane and releases insides
(normal size); water flows in and out at equal rate
(cell shrinks); more solute outside, less water outside, more water inside, water flows out
(cell grows); less solute and more water outside, less water inside, water flows in
high to low concentration of a substance
effects of cell structure(size)
volume increases much faster than surface area, so cell membrane can't keep up with volume
effects of cell structure(shape)
long= cylinder (most surface area, least volume); storage= sphere (least surface area, most volume)
molecules continue to move but balance each other out (water floats in and out of cell at equal rates; molecules always continue to move around at high speeds so it spreads).
mimics cell membrane
maintenance of constant internal conditions to survive in diverse environments; imbalance affects cell function (ex: oxygen, temp., pH)
more acquired, more needed
if level drops too low, more acquired
steps of scientific method
observation, hypothesis, experiment, analyze results
importance of a controlled experiment
allows you to isolate and test a single variable at a time
observed and measured (y-axis)
remain constant throughout lab
variable that is not changed and doesn't recieve treatment
no nucleus or membrane bound organelles
nucleus and membrane bound organelles
3 parts of cell theory
all organisms are made of cells; all existing cells are produced by other living cells; the cell is the most basic unit in life
(1665) used the microscope to look at cork cells, gave name "cells"
organelles (ex- mitochondria) were once free living prokaryotes
how did the endosymbiotic theory occur
prokaryote engulfed another prokaryote with different function, beneficial symbiotic relationship formed so evolved together
what is the evidence of endosymbiotic theory
similar to bacteria: own ribosomes and DNA(genome), same size, split independently
monosaccharide(m) and polysaccharide(p); found in cell membrane; provide energy
fatty acids+ glycerol(m) and fats, oils, and waxes(p); found in cell membrane
amino acids(m) and proteins(p); found in cell membrane and microtubules; structural and functional proteins
nucleotide(m) and DNA and RNA(p); found in nucleus
cell energy comes from...
cell transport comes from...
transport proteins and microtubules
genetic material is in...
enzymes are found in...
lysosomes (filled with digestive enzymes)
chemical indicator of starch
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Animal Cell Structures
Cell Membrane and cell transport
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