Developmental Exam 4

Changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong are termed:
moral development
Which dimension of moral development regulates social interactions and arbitrates conflict?
When children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties of the world that are out of the control of people, they are displaying:
heteronomous morality
When children become aware that rules and laws are created by people, and can judge action, by considering the actor's intentions as well as the consequences, they are displaying:
autonomous morality.
Young children believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably. This is a belief in:
immanent justice.
What main method did Kohlberg use to evaluate moral reasoning?
interviews about moral dilemma stories
Taetem is interviewed while participating in a protest. Taetem states that she has the right to express her opinion, as does anyone else, and that this protest increases her personal power and increases the likelihood that she will get what she deserves. Which moral level does Taetem's statement reflect?
At which stage of Kohlberg's theory does a person understand that values and laws are important to maintaining social order?
social contract or utility of social order and individual rights
Allan is visiting a country where it is illegal to give money to panhandlers, but he feels such pangs of conscience that he ignores the law and gives freely to the impoverished children begging for food. Which moral stage does this demonstrate?
universal ethical principles
Piaget and Kohlberg agree that:
peer relations challenges children to advance their moral reasoning..
Which of the following statements is true of Kohlberg's theory as it applies across cultures?
Support for Kohlberg's first four stages was shown across most cultures, with more diversity at stages 5 and 6.
The justice perspective on moral behavior focuses on:
the rights of the individual.
According to Carol Gilligan, when interpreting moral dilemmas, girls more often employ:
a care perspective
It is unacceptable to lie, steal, cheat, or hurt someone. These are examples of:
moral rules
The effectiveness of reward and punishment for engendering moral behavior depends on the:
consistency and timing of administration.
Walter Mischel purports that self-control is strongly influenced by attitude or:
cognitive factors
Which theory of morality emphasizes the distinction between individuals' ability to perform moral behavior and actual moral behavior in specific situations?
social cognitive
According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory, what is the foundation of moral behavior?
guilt and the desire to avoid feeling guilty
What is the moral branch of the personality in psychoanalytic theory?
Maya experiences a deep emotional reaction when she speaks to Stephanie about the death of Stephanie's son. Maya imagines herself in Stephanie's situation and feels:
John Dewey believed that a school's classroom rules and moral orientation of the teachers and administrators create a moral atmosphere and, in turn, a:
hidden curriculum.
Rena contributes 10 percent of her income to her church every month. Some argue that Rena receives benefits from this action even if the rewards are intangible. They argue the concept of:
Four-year-old Bennett shares a favorite toy. According to William Damon (1988), Bennett is MOST likely motivated by a sense of:
Age-inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, societal norms, and personal or property rights of others describe:
a conduct disorder.
Which of the following emphasizes the child's active role in building knowledge and understanding through exploration and discovery?
Which of the following would a constructivist-based classroom LEAST likely incorporate?
rote memorization
Every morning, Ms. Santos dictates a vocabulary word including spelling, meaning, and an example used in a sentence. Which teaching method does this best illustrate?
direct instruction
Ms. Espinoza uses a direct instruction approach when teaching reading and often assigns hands-on, constructivist projects for reinforcing new skills. What would educational psychology experts say about this teacher's instructional approach?
Experts say that many effective teachers use both a constructivist and a direct instruction approach.
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act is aimed at improving student performance through:
school accountability
Developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarten level are likely to be:
Janene and Michael head a low-income family. They are concerned that their young children are not acquiring the necessary skills and experiences necessary for academic success in school. What program could address their needs?
Head Start
One criticism of the contemporary approach to early education is that it:
places too much pressure to achieve on children.
What happens to children's self-esteem as they proceed through early school years?
Entrance into formal schooling is considered important because it marks:
the beginning of new roles and obligations for the child.
Of the children who receive special education or related services, the majority are served under what classification?
learning disability
Hannah attends school regularly and has average achievement in math and writing, but her reading comprehension performance is very low. Hannah has a(n):
learning disability.
The highest incidence of ADHD occurs in:
Which drug category includes most ADHD medications?
A recent study showed that __________ factors likely play a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders.
Extrinsic motivation is an integral component of which developmental approach?
Which type of motivation is MOST likely to produce high levels of competition?
Sheri tackles her science project by scheduling research and writing time. She hopes to learn a lot about her topic. This is an example of which type of orientation?
Motivation experts worry that No Child Left Behind encourages:
a performance orientation.
Which of the following characterizes students with high self-efficacy?
They show higher levels of persistence for learning tasks.
The belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes is called:
How hard a student works can depend on:
all of these
Retirement is:
a process, not an event.
People, places or contexts, times, objects, and symbols are all components of a culture's death:
In contrast to those of many other cultures, people in the United States:
death avoiders and death deniers.
United States culture uses euphemistic terms for death. This is an indication of:
Bob is dying of cancer. He will MOST likely die:
in a hospital or institution.
If all electrical activity of the brain has ceased for a specified period of time, an individual is:
brain dead.
Which of the following refers to individuals' rights to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive?
living will
Euthanasia that occurs by withholding available treatment is termed:
Patricia is dying of cancer. Which of the following MOST likely is true?
Even though painkillers are available, Patricia still experiences severe pain.
What is the goal of palliative care?
reduce pain and suffering and help individuals die with dignity
What is the highest cause of infant death in the United States?
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
Marina's dog, Nacho, is killed by a car. When she sees him, Marina asks, "When will Nacho wake up?" Approximately how old is Marina?
3-5 years
Ten-year-old Denise has just suffered the death of her father. What impact will this have on her life?
Impact on Denise will depend on factors such as the quality of her relationship with her father and on the nature of his death.
Karen is 45 years old. She fears death:
more than both her 16-year-old daughter and 72-year-old mother.
Terminally ill patients experience different feelings. Younger adults are likely to grieve what they __________; older adults grieve losing what they __________.
might achieve; have
What is the third leading cause of death among 10-to 19-year-olds in the United States?
During which life stage is suicide the highest?
85 years and older
When asked, "What would you do if you had only 6 months to live," Beth answers that she would spend time meditating. Beth is likely a(n):
older adult.
Which of the following lists Kübler-Ross's stages of grief in the correct order?
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Kay knows the end is near. She is calm and ready to let go of her earthly cares. Which of Kübler-Ross's stages of grief does this illustrate?
Which two factors may work as adaptive strategies for facing death?
denial and perceived control
Betty's doctor allows her to make important decisions regarding treatment of her terminal disease. Betty's perceived control will serve to:
ignite her immune system and help her conquer the disease.
Which of the following is the BEST way to deal with impending death?
There is no single "best" way; adaptive coping differs according to personal circumstances and personality.
Grief is a:
reaction to death that lasts anywhere from three to nine months as defined by the DSM-IV-TR.
Edie's daughter was killed in a car crash nearly 2 years ago. Since her daughter's death, Edie has been unable to cope and move forward with her life. She feels numb and detached and says that life has no meaning. Edie is experiencing:
prolonged grief.
Individuals more often experience intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, nightmares, and problems in concentrating when a loved one's death is:
sudden or untimely.
Which of the following is a likely consequence of the death of a husband?
financial strain
Women generally adjust better than men after a death of a spouse because:
women have better social networks, closer family relationships, and more psychological coping strategies.
The crux of the controversy surrounding the funeral industry centers on whether or not:
funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.
The traditional Amish and Jewish cultures are similar in how they cope with death in that they both:
provide community support for the family over several months.