Praxis II: Fundamental Subjects: Content Knowledge

Whole number that includes all positive and negative numbers, including zero.
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Rounding numbers to the nearest decimal place for accuracy.EstimatingBasic Foundation for understanding mathematic computation.Place ValuesIn the number 1984 the number 1 would be in what place value?Thousand: 1000In the number 1984 the number 9 would be in what place value?Hundred: 900In the number 1984 the number 8 would be in what place value?Ten: 80In the number 1984 the number 4 would be in what place value?One: 4Every composite number can be written as a product of prime numbers and is called?Prime FactorizationTo perform Prime Factorization you can use?A number treeDoes not matter which factor pair you start with in prime factorization as long as you continue factoring until you only have?Prime numbersThe largest positive integer that divides into the numbers without producing a remainder.Greatest Common Divisor (GCD)A whole number that is a multiple of two or more given numbers. Ex: 2, 3, and 4 are 12, 24, 36, 48....Common MultipleNumber greater than zero which is divisible by at least one other number besides one (1) and itself resulting in an integer (has at least 3 factors). Ex: 9....1,3, and 9 are all?Composite NumberModeling the Operations: This method the teacher allows the students to use real objects.Concreate methodModeling the Operations: This method students work with visual representations (pictures) instead of actual objects.Semi concrete methodModeling the Operations: Students work with one symbol (tally marks, x's, y's, etc) to represent objects instead of actual objects, pictures, or abstract (numerical) representations. Students use one symbol.Semiabstract methodModeling the Operations: Student matches the elements of a given group with abstract numbers. Ex: 3 rabbits eating 4 carrots daily would be set up like: 3 x 4Abstract methodCan model a multiplication problem. First number is vertical and second number is horizontal.ArrayOf any counting number are the results of multiplying that continues number by all the counting numbers. Ex: 7: 7,14, 21,28....MultiplesAny number multiplied by 1 remains the same... 34 x 1 = 34.Multiplicative identity property of 1.Product of any number (except 0) multiplied by its __________ is 1.reciprocalIs 1 divided by that number.reciprocalProperty: Order of adding addends or multiplying factors does not determine the sum or product. Ex: 6x9 gives the same product as 9x6. Division and subtraction can not use this.CommutativeProperty: grouping three or more addends or factors in a different way does not change the sum or product. Ex: (3+7)+5 results the same sum as 3 + (7+5)AssociativeNumber multiplied by the sum of two other numbers can be handed out, or distributed, to both numbers, multiplied by each of them separately, products added together. Ex: a(b+c) = (a 3 b) + (a 3 c)DistributiveIndicates the renaming of a number from one place value to another.RegroupingAny of the numbers, or symbols in mathematics that, when multiplied together, form a product.FactorsNumber with only two counting number factors - 1 and the number itself. Ex: 2,3,5,7,11,13, and 17.Prime numberOther counting numbers, composed of several counting number factors. Number 1 is neither prime nor composite, has only one counting number factor: 1.Composite numbersCan be represented in two ways; measurement and partition.DivisionStudents know how many in each group (set) but do not know how many sets.Measurement divisionStudents know the number of groups (sets) but they do not know the number of objects in each set.Partitive divisionA sequence governed by a rule that can be expressed in words or symbols.PatternsRequires knowledge of the concepts of a variable, function, and equation.Algebraic ExpressionsWhen graph of pairs of numbers results in points lying on a straight line, a function is said to be?LinearWhen graph of pair numbers is not on a line the function is?Non-LinearEquivalent to the set of counting numbers.Natural numbersThe number 0 added to any natural number yields a sum that is the same as the other natural number is?Additive identity, or identity element of additionWhen a factor is multiplied by 0, then the product is 0.Multiplication property of 0One is considered the what of multiplication?Identity elementA statement that is written using one or more variables and constants that shows a greater than or less than relationship. Ex: 2x+ 8 > 24Algebraic InequalityBasic strategy for inequalities and equations is to?Isolate x on one sideIs a specific location, taking up no space, having no area, no dimensions and frequently represented by a dot.PointWith two points this is exactly one straight line, straight lines are considered?One-dimensionalFlat surfaces without edges are?PlanesPlanes are infinite length and breadth but no depth are considered to be?Two-dimensionalDistance around the object. Ex: Around fencePerimeterP = 4sPerimeterP = 22 + 2wPerimeterMultiplying four times the measure of a side of the square.Perimeter of a squareBy adding twice the length of the rectangle to twice the width. Ex: l=10m w=5m P = 2(10m) + 2(5m) = 30mPerimeter of a rectangleFound by adding the measures of 3 sides of the triangle. Rep as: P = s1 + s2 + s3Perimeter of a triangleFound by multiplying the measure of the length by width of the rectangle. Rep as: A = 2xwAread of a rectangleSquaring the measure of the side of the square. Rep as: A = s2Area of a squareHow much space is inside of a 3-dimensional closed containers.Volume3-dimensional solid figure. Ex: 6 faces, 12 edges, + 8 vertices. F + V = E + 2CubeUnion of two segments or point of intersection of two sides of a polygon.VertexEach of the plain regions of a geometric body is a face.FacesIs a line segment where two faces of a three-dimensional figure meet.EdgeTwo pairs of sides of two triangles are equal in length + included angles are equal in a measurement = congruentSAS (Side-Angle Side)3 pairs of sides of 2 triangles equal in length = congruentSSS (side-side-side)2 triangles are = measurement, included sides = then = congruentASA (Angle-Side Angle)2 pairs of angles of 2 triangles are = in measurement + pair of corresponding sides are equal in length = congruentAAS (Angle-Angle-Side)