JFK's defense strategy to fight a non-nuclear war through increasing defense spending on traditional military forces (non-nuclear forces) - army and navy
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, JFK demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev accepted U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba and American missiles were removed from Turkey
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Limited Test Ban Treaty
1963 treaty in which the United States and the Soviet Union agreed not to test nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in space, or underwater
a clear indication that voters approved of a politician's agenda
Federal program established to send volunteers to help developing nations
The U.S. commission in charge with investigating the assassination of JFK. It came to the conclusion that Oswald acted alone.
Economic Opportunity Act
LBJ,1964, approved nearly $1 billion for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small-business loans, and job trainin
1964, LBJ's policies of fighting poverty and racial injustice
A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
A federal program designed to provide health care for poor Americans
Immigration Act of 1965
Abolished the national-origins quotas from the 1920s
1960s under Earl Warren, known for its reform-minded activism on liberal issues and civil rights
the way in which states redraw election districts based on the changing populations within them, each district should have approximately the same number of people
Miranda v. Arizona
1966 Supreme Court decision that sets guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to protect them against self-incrimination and to protect their right to counsel.
de facto segregation
segregation enforced by cultural traditions and customs
de jure segregation
segregation that is required by law
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
founded by MLK Jr., to fight segregation. passive resistance stressed nonviolence and peaceful confrontation.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
(SNCC) Founded in 1960 to coordinate civil rights sit-ins and other forms of grassroots protest lead by students
Is a form of non-violent action where people or group of people occupy strategic location, until their goal was achieved
Civil Rights Act of 1964
illegal to discriminate based on sex, race, or national origin - no more segreation
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage
Nation of Islam
A group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
a militant political organization set up in the US in 1966 to fight for black rights.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
ended discrimination in housing
A policy designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment for members of some previously disadvantaged groups
Dr. Jonas Salk
developed polio vaccine
John F. Kennedy
35th POTUS (1960-63), liberal Democrat, Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the Civil Rights Movement.
Eisenhower's VP (1952-60), Republican candidate for president in 1960
Communist leader of Cuba
Lee Harvey Oswald
Assassinated JFK, murdered by Jack Ruby
Lyndon Baines Johnson
JFK's VP, 36th POTUS (1963-68), liberal Democrat, War on Poverty and the Great Society
A lawyer for the NAACP. First black justice in the Supreme Court.
NAACP member who initiated the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 when she was arrested for violating Jim Crow rules on a bus; her action and the long boycott that followed became an icon of the quest for civil rights and focused national attention on boycott leader Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr
1950s-1960s; civil rights leader advocated non-violence and civil disobedience as tools for change; organized protests such as the March on Washington, as well as indirectly inspired sit-ins and protests across the nation
Executive director of the SCLC; urged student leaders who had encouraged sit-ins to create their own organization (the SNCC - Student Nonviolent Cooperating Committee)
1962 Air Force veteran won a federal court case that allowed him to enroll in the all-white University of Mississippi
Fannie Lou Hamer
spokesperson for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic Convention
African-American civil rights leader who encouraged violent responses to racial discrimination
originally a member of SNCC, became active with Malcom X and Black Power movements