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Chapter 3: Exercise Physiology
Terms in this set (55)
study of functional and physiologic responses and adaptations that occur during and following physical activity and exercise
-responds to acute and chronic bouts of exercise
responses of the systems of body to insufficient amounts, little, or no physical activity
Early Twentieth-Century Influences
Harvard made 4-year science courses with physiology
-Harvard Fatigue Lab: 1927, studied physiologic, psychological and sociologic responses of industry workers to stressful stimuli
Late Twentieth-Century Influences
-American Society of Exercise Physciologists developed to promote it as a profession
What are the two primary areas of study in exercise physiology?
1) how the body responds to acute episodes of physical activity and exercise
2) how regular physical activity and exercise results in chronic adaptations of the various systems of the body
actions that occur in response to a single bout of physical activity or exercise
-increase in energy production, greater blood flow, rise in body temp.
-increase in glucose and fatty acid uptake, increase in epinephrine and norepinephrine
occur in body with repeated regular physical activity and exercise
-improves body at rest and during exercise
-greater use of fat, lower heart rate and higher stroke volume, better VO2, regulates body temp.
condition following complete absorption of meal
-rely on fat and carbs as primary sources of energy
meals high in carbs increase..
glucose and glycogen utilization
two primary factors affecting substrate utilization are...
intensity and duration
during low intensity.....is primary substrate
when intensity increase....increases
carbss as energy source
when theres a shift from fat to carbs as energy substrate
epinephrine is increased when?
higher intensity...increases carb metabolism by increasing muscle glycogen breakdown and inhibiting release of fat
mobilization of fat from adipose is controlled by enzymes called
-influenced by homromnes epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucagon
fat mobilization can be inhibited by...
increased lactic acid and insulin
in long-duration exercise, .....is teh carb energy source
-that and blood glucose switch to maintain levels when one becomes depleted
1 to 4 hours before exercise, you should have...
1 to 5 g of carbs per kilogram body mass
glucose polymer solutions
drink wtih multiple glucose molecules linked together in solution
use of carbs as energy results in breadown of what?
muscle glycogen and increases in teh uptake of lgucose from teh blood into muscle cells
-increase liver glycogen breakdown into glucose
-trying to maintain blood glucose levels
movement of glucose from blood into the cell depends on...
hormone insulin and glucose transport protein
glucose trasnport protein 4
works with insulin to facilitate glucose uptake by skeletal muscle fibers
Type 1 diabetes
insufficient insulin is produced by pancreas
-if exercise, need to regulate glucose levels or insulin shock happens
type 2 diabetes
insulin does not promote uptake of glucose by cell
-body becomes resistant to insulin
production of energy through use of oxygen in cell
immature structures that can potentially convert into muscle fibers
sedentary people have >>>% of slow muscle fiber
high-volume training does what to bones?
increased risk of osteoporosis
What are the two generally accepted strategies fro making skeleton more resistant to fractures?
1) maximizing amount of bone mineral density in the first three decades of life
2) minimizing decline in bone mineral density after age of 40
application of force to the tissues of body-increase bone density
factors that lead to poor bone density
calcium insufficiency, estrogen deficiency
-disordered eating, amenorrhea, bone mineral loss (female athlete triad)
absence of menstrual cycle caused by disorder of hypothalamus
-decreased ovarian hormone production
low levels of female hormone estrogen
an increased level of .... fat is associated with hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension
What percent of body weight loss can significantly improve health by decreasing blood lipids, BP, and Type 2 diabetes?
factors affecting energy intake and expenditure
genetic profile, socio-economic status, psychological state, physical activity and exercise patterns, availability and selection of macro intake, physical living and work environment
factors affecting strength development
exercise frequency, duration of exercise training, types of exercises selected, total amount of work performed, age and gender, fitness level, exercise intensity
successful weight loss
reduce calories by 500-1000 and fat intake by 30%
-energy input should be over 2,000 calories a week
DRI for protein
0.8 g per kilogram body weight
protein intake for athletes
1.2-1.4 of protein per kilogram body weight for endurance and 1.4 to 1.7 g per kilogram for resistance-trained athletes
indirect assessments of energy expenditure include..
measure of some physiologic variable, then a determination of energy expenditure is derived from a mathematics prediction
invasive, limited subjects
doubly labeled water
expensive, limited subjects, requires frequent visits
respiratory gas exchange
expensive, limited primary to labs
how do muscle biopsies help?
show energy exchange in skeletal muscle
main response in exercise in heat
cardiovascular system: increases blood flow to skin which results in an increase in sweating
-sweat loss: dehydration -reduction in physical work capacity and exercise performance
low concentration of sodium in blood
-happens with over-drinking
heat is lost from the body through four processes
conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation
heat loss through diet transfer to a cooler object
process of heat loss to air surrounding the body
heat loss through the air to solid cooler objects
two most critical environmental factors are...
wind and water
wind chill index
how fast heat would be lost at different wind speeds and temperatures
water's thermal conductvitiy
25 times greater than air at same temp
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