Upgrade to remove ads
Micro - Exam 2 - Organic Molecules and Carbohydrates
Terms in this set (38)
How many covalent bonds are formed by one carbon, and why?
With as many as 4 other atoms.
- Carbon always has 4 sticks around it
- Each stick represents a shared pair of electrons
When a double covalent bond is formed, how many electrons are being shared?
Given a molecule that was drawn incorrectly, indicate which carbon does not have a sufficient number of bonds.
Carbon needs a total of 8 electrons on the outer layer - it has 4 sticks - so look for that
Given a molecular formula (such as CH4) identify the molecule as inorganic or organic
In order to be organic, a molecule must contain CARBON and HYDROGEN
What is the basis of all life on earth?
What is hydrophilic?
Molecules interact with water
What is hyrophobic
Molecules do not interact with water
Given an organic molecule (molecular or structural formula) indicate whether the molecule is hydrophobic or hydrophilic and why.
if it contains a lot of electron negative oxygens
Where do most biological reactions take place?
In water - therefore the ability of a molecule to interact with water is an important factor in its function
What are the three major functional groups?
Hydroxl -OH (alcohol)
Carboxyl -CO2H (acid)
The 4 major organic molecules we are studying?
T or F - Today, most organic molecules can be synthesized in the laboratory.
T or F - In the past, organic molecules were considered to be only those molecules synthesized in living things.
What are functional groups?
Groups of atoms that are connected to the backbone that determines the character of the molecule
- Most organic molecules have a carbon "backbone"
- Shape of backbone = Linear, branched or ring
Given two molecules, identify whether they are isomers of each other and explain why.
If they are isomers they have the same # of the same molecules. Their structures are different.
What is a macromolecule?
a very large molecule created by polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers)
What are isomers?
Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formula
Two subunits joined together
Many monomers joined together
Describe the chemical reactions of dehydration synthesis in terms of what occurs, and what is accomplished
- process of joining two monomers, or compounds, together following the removal of water
- monomers are joined together
-Forms water molecules as byproduct
Describe the chemical reactions of hydrolysis in terms of what occurs, and what is accomplished
- the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
-A water molecule is split.
- Polymers and dimers are broken into monomers
What are the four major categories of organic molecules, and what atoms are in each type?
- Carbohydrates C,H,O
- Lipids C,H,O
-Nucleic Acids C,H,O,N,P
11. What ratio of carbon:hydrogen:oxygen is typical of carbohydrates? Be able to recognize a carbohydrate from its molecular or structural formula.
1:2:1 - C:H:O
Carbohydrates have the same number of C as O
Carbohydrate monomers are called?
In comparison to carbohydrates, what atom is present in much lower quantities in lipids?
Carbohydrate dimers are called?
Carbohydrate polymers are called?
What are the five major monosaccharides
What has to happen to digest disaccharides and polysaccharides?
Hydrolysis, has to be broken down into monosaccharides. Needs help of the enzyme Amylase
3 major disaccharides
Sucrose (glucose, fructose) found in plants
Lactose (glucose, galactose) found in dairy
Maltose (glucose, glucose) degradation of starch
How are disaccharides formed?
They are two monosaccharides joined together by dehydration synthesis
What are the 4 major polysaccharides?
-Plant starch (carb storage in plants)
-Glycogen (Carb storage in animals. Stored in liver and muscles)
-Cellulose (Gives structural support to plant cell walls. Digestable by some microbes, but not by animals)
-Chitin (Gives support to exoskeletons (crabs, insects...Not digestable by animals)
Why do potatoes contain a large amount of starch?
Because a potato is a storage organ for a potato plant - Storing carbs for the next season
Why does celery provide very few calories?
Because it contains a large quantity of cellulose that is indigestible by humans
Why is glycogen stored in muscle cells?
Because it can be broken into glucose that can then be used for energy metabolism required by muscle cells
Why does grass provide more calories for cows than for humans?
Because bacteria living in the digestive tract of cows assist in the breakdown of cellulose
Why do high cellulose foods benefit humans?
Even though we cant breakdown for energy, we can absorb water, vitamins and minerals
This set is often in folders with...
Micro - Exam 2 - Lipids and Proteins
Micro - Exam 2 - Cell Structure
Micro - Exam 2 - Bacterial Cell
You might also like...
Biology Exploring Life Chapter 5 Test and study sh…
Organic vs.Inorganic Compounds
Organic vs.Inorganic Compounds
Molecules to Metabolism 2.1
Other sets by this creator
Quiz Chapter 2 - BUS377 Cert
BUS 377 Quiz 1
BUS 377 Week 4
BUS 377 Week 3