Chemistry Chapter 3 (Piedi)

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Terms in this set (...)

solid
form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume, is compressible, and expands only slightly when heated
liquid
a form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its container
gas
a form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container, fills the container's entire volume, and is easily compressed
plasma
a hot ionized gas consisting of approximately equal numbers of positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons
Bose-Einstein Condensate
a group of atoms cooled to within a hair of absolute zero
vapor
gaseous state of a substance that is a liquid or a solid at room temperature
melting point
the temperature at which the forces holding something together are broken down and it becomes liquid
boiling
the temperature at which a liquid's vapor pressure is equal to the external or atmospheric pressure or the action of bringing a liquid to the temperature at which it bubbles and turns to vapor
condensation
energy releasing process where gas or vapor becomes a liquid
deposition
the energy releasing process which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a solid without first becoming a liquid
evaporation
the process in which vaporization occurs only at the surface of a liquid
freezing point
the temperature at which a liquid is converted into a crystalline solid
phase change
a transition of matter from one state to another
sublimation
the energy requiring process by which solid changes directly to gas without becoming a liquid first
vaporization
the energy requiring process by which a liquid changes to a gas or vapor
property
observed during reaction in which the chemical composition or identity of the substance is changed
physical property
characteristic of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the sample's composition
chemical property
the ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more substances
intensive physical properties
independent of the amount of substance present
extensive physical properties
dependent on the amount of substance present
mixture or pure substance
What are the 2 categories matter can be classified as?
solid, liquid, gas
What are the 3 different states matter can be broken into?
pure substance
matter that has uniform and unchanging composition (something you cannot make)
compound
the substance formed by the chemical union of two or more elements in a definite ratio
element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
elements
_______ are a substance made of same types of atoms
compounds
_______ are made of different elements in definite proportions
Law of definite proportions
any chemical compound will always contain a fixed ratio of elements by mass
Law of multiple proportions
states that when different compounds are formed by the combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same fixed masses of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers
mixture
a substance made by mixing other substances together (substances are not chemically combined)
solution
a liquid mixture in which the minor component is uniformly distributed with the major component
solute
minor component in a mixture
solvent
major component in a mixture
filtration
a technique that uses a barrier to separate a solid from a liquid
distillation
the separation of the constitutes of a liquid by boiling it and then condensing the vapor that results
crystallization
a separation technique that produces pure solid particles of a substance from a solution that contains the dissolved substance
chromatography
a physical method of separation that distributes components to separate between two phases
mobile phase and stationary phase
2 phases separated in chromatography
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture that does not have uniform composition and in which the individual substances remain distinct
homogeneous
the same uniform appearance and composition throughout
extensive
volume, mass, and length are ______ physical properties
solid
what state of matter has a definite shape and volume?
chemical property
what is reactivity a symbol of?
malleability
able to be pounded into a flat sheet
pure substances
compounds and elements are examples of ____ _______
solution
a homogeneous mixture is also known as a _______
pure substance/ element
how would you classify a sample of magnesium?
water displacement
technique used to find the volume of an irregularly shaped object