PLTW - IED Units 1-9 ALL KEY TERMS
Introduction to Engineering Design - Vocabulary to Know
Terms in this set (279)
A system of dimensioning which requires all numerals, figures, and notes to be aligned with the dimension lines so that they may be read from the bottom (for horizontal dimensions) and from the right side (for vertical dimensions).
the tightest possible fit between two mating parts
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
A private, non-profit organization that coordinates the development and use of a voluntary consensus standards in the United States.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
A professional engineering organization that is known for setting codes and standards for mechanical devices in the United States.
The understanding of the consumer group for which the design is targeted. This would include the audiences, demographics, physical location, amount of time available to view the design, and interest in the subject matter.
A view that is used to show features that are located on an inclined surface in true size and shape.
System of dimensioning in which all dimensions are placed from a datum and not from feature to feature
A circle with a single number connected to an assembly component with a leader line to refer to parts.
A tolerance in which variation is permitted in both directions from the specified dimension.
A hole that does not go completely through the workpiece.
A section of an object broken away to reveal an interior feature for a sectional drawing.
Also known as point-to-point dimensioning where dimensions are established from one point to the next.
limit the size of mating parts so that a clearance always results when mating parts are assembled
A cylindrical recess around a hole, usually to receive a bolt head or nut.
A conical-shaped recess around a hole, often used to receive a tapered screw.
Cutting Plane Line
a line drawn on a view where a cut was made in order to define the location of the imaginary section plane.
A theoretically exact point, axis, or plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of a specific datum feature. The origin from which the location, or geometric characteristic of a part feature, is established.
A dimensioning system where each dimension originates from a common surface, plane, or axis. Also known as baseline dimensioning.
A tool used to compare design solutions against one another, using specific criteria.
A dimensioned, working drawing of a single part. Also referred to as part drawing.
A view that is used to show a magnified view of features that are too small to adequately specify in another view.
Where alternate units are displayed within the same dimension.
A curved surface formed at the interior intersection of two or more surfaces of an object. An inside radius between two intersecting planes
To show lines or objects shorter than their true size. Foreshortened lines are not perpendicular to the line of sight.
A sectional drawing based on a cutting plane line that extends completely through an object.
A sectional drawing based on a cutting plane line that cuts through one-quarter of an object. A half section reveals half of the interior and half of the exterior.
Notes placed separate from the views; relate to the entire drawing.
the amount of overlap that one part has with another when assembled
Limits the size of mating parts so that an interference always results when mating parts are assembled.
International Organization for Standardization (IOS)
This is a worldwide organization that creates engineering standards.
Least Material Condition (LMC)
The smallest size limit of an external feature and the largest size limit of an internal feature.
The largest and smallest possible boundaries to which a feature may be made as related to the tolerance of the dimension.
Connected to specific features on the views of the drawing. Also known as annotations.
A location dimension that defines the relationship of features of an object.
The activity of gathering information about consumers needs and preferences
Maximum Material Condition (MMC)
The largest size limit of an external feature and the smallest size limit of an internal feature.
The designation of the size established for a commercial product.
A drawing that contains all the information for making one part of the design.
A list of materials or parts specified for a project. Also referred to as a bill of materials or BOM.
A distance of uniform measurement determined at a point on one unit to the same corresponding point on the next unit; used in threads, springs, and other machine parts.
A dimension, usually without a tolerance, used for information purposes only. A reference is a repeat of a given dimension or established from other values shown on a drawing. Reference dimensions are enclosed in ( ) on the drawing.
An outside radius applied to corners.
Lines that are used to represent the material through which a cut is made in order to show an interior sectional view.
A view that is used to show details not apparent on the exterior of the part.
Placed directly on a feature to identify a specific size or may be connected to a feature in the form of a note.
The dimension noted or, in the case of a tolerance, the part of the dimension from which the limits are calculated.
A shallow recess like a counterbore, used to provide a good bearing surface for a fastener.
An investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people, based on a series of questions.
To cut internal threads.
Gradual diminution of width or thickness in an elongated object.
A type of expository writing that is used to convey information for technical or business purposes.
The acceptable amount of dimensional variation that will still allow an object to function correctly
Occurs when two mating parts can sometimes have a clearance fit and sometimes have an interference fit.
A dimensioning system which requires all numerals, figures and notes t be lettered horizontally and to be read from the bottom of the sheet
A tolerance in which variation is permitted in only one direction from the specified dimension.
Drawings that convey all of the information needed to manufacture and assemble a design
To thoroughly and methodically analyze accomplishment against specific goals and criteria.
An evaluation technique for technology that requires analyzing benefits and risks, understanding the trade-offs, and then determining the best action to take in order to ensure that the desired positive outcomes outweigh the negative consequences. Techniques used to analyze accomplishments against specific goals and criteria. Examples of assessments include tests, surveys, observations, and self-assessment.
A group technique for solving problems, generating ideas, stimulating creative thinking, etc. by unrestrained spontaneous participation in discussion.
A person using the services of a professional person or organization.
The ability to make or bring a new concept or idea into existence; marked by the ability or power to create.
A means of judging. A standard, rule, or test by which something can be judged.
1. A limit to a design process. Constraints may be such things as appearance, funding, space, materials, and human capabilities. 2. A limitation or restriction.
1. An iterative decision-making process that produces plans by which resources are converted into products or systems that meet human needs and wants or solve problems. 2. A plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of something before it is built or made.
A written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints. The design brief is used to encourage thinking of all aspects of a problem before attempting a solution.
A systematic problem-solving strategy, with criteria and constraints, used to develop many possible solutions to solve a problem or satisfy human needs and wants and to winnow (narrow) down the possible solutions to one final choice.
A part of a design brief that challenges the designer, describes what a design solution should do without describing how to solve the problem, and identifies the degree to which the solution must be executed.
A person who designs any of a variety of things. This usually implies the task of creating drawings or in some ways uses visual cues to organize his or her work.
A person who is trained in and uses technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.
An engineering notebook is a book in which an engineer will formally document in chronological order, all of his/her work that is associated with a specific design project.
An improvement of an existing technological product system, or method of doing something.
A new product system, or process that has never existed before, created by study and experimentation.
An idea that produces a similar idea or an enhanced idea.
The recognition of an unwelcome or harmful matter needing to be dealt with.
A tangible artifact produced by means of either human or mechanical work or by biological or chemical process.
The systematic study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
The hearing and determination of a dispute or the settling of differences between parties by a person or persons chosen or agreed to by them.
The principal legal officer of the Crown or a state
Something produced in the making of something else; a secondary result; a side effect
A substance capable of causing cancer
A detailed analysis and assessment
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The US federal agency with a mission to protect human health and the environment.
The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.
Conforming to an established set of principles or accepted professional standards of contact.
The moral principles governing or influencing conduct.
To form an idea of the amount or value of; assess.
A time and activity bar chart that is used for planning, managing, and controlling major programs that have a distinct beginning and end.
A danger or risk.
The effect or influence of one thing on another. Some impacts are anticipated, and others are unanticipated.
A low area of land that is built up from deposits of solid refuse in layers covered by soil.
The act or process of using an intermediary to effect an agreement or reconciliation.
Mutual discussion and arrangement of the terms of a transaction or agreement.
Principles of right action, binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior.
Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
A government organization whose mission is to assure the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health.
Stages a product goes through from concept and use to eventual withdrawal from the market place.
The accepted code of behavior in a particular situation.
Any natural resource that is used to make finished products.
To reclaim or reuse old materials in order to make new products
To renovate or redecorate.
Matter thrown away as worthless.
A small amount of something that remains after the main part has gone or been taken or used.
When the unit or team becomes stronger than the sum of the individual members.
An exchange of one thing in return for another; especially relinquishment of one benefit or advantage for another regarded as more desirable.
A group of people that rely primarily or exclusively on electronic forms of communication to work together in accomplishing goals.
Material which is eliminated or discarded as no longer useful or required.
An assembly drawing in which parts are moved out of position along an axis so that each individual part is visible.
A mathematical relationship or rule expressed in symbols.
A number value or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure.
A property of a system whose value determines how the system will behave.
A CAD modeling method that uses parameters to define the size and geometry of features and to create relationships between features. Changing a parameter value updates all related features of the model at once.
A line used to show the alternate positions of an object or matching part without interfering with the main drawing.
The quantitative relation between two amounts showing the number of times one value contains or is contained within the other.
A relatively thin flat member acting as a brace support. Also called a web.
dealing with, appreciative of, or responsive to art or beatiful
(mathematics) a lack of symmetry
equality of distribution
the appearance of objects (or light sources) described in terms of a person's perception of their hue and lightness (or brightness) and saturation
the range of optical density and tone on a photographic negative or print (or the extent to which adjacent areas on a television screen differ in brightness)
an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up
special importance or significance
give shape to
a configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts
creating visual communications with two-dimensional media and images.
a harmonious state of things in general and of their properties (as of colors and sounds)
The process of deciding what information needs to go into the graphic design, as well as how to effectively use the design elements and principles to present the information. This analysis is based on a thorough analysis of the audience.
a picture or drawing representing words or ideas
a rule or standard
the property of symmetry about an axis
The process of taking something apart and analyzing its workings in detail, usually with the intention to understand function, prepare documentation, electronic data, or construct a new or improved device or program, without actually copying from the original.
recurring at regular intervals
the spatial arrangement of something as distinct from its substance
the unlimited expanse in which everything is located
something visible that by association or convention represents something else that is invisible
the practice of investing things with symbolic meaning
balance among the parts of something
the feel of a surface or a fabric
the craft of composing type and printing from it
the quality of being united into one
relative darkness or lightness of a color
a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality
A triangle that contains only angles that are less than 90 degrees.
a biased way of looking at or presenting something
describes the measure of the two-dimensional space enclosed by a shape
. Primary direction in a coordinate system
Center of Gravity
.A 3D point where the total weight of the body may be considered
A 3D point defining the geometric center of a solid
A closed curve with coplanar points at the same distance from the center point
To draw a figure around another, touching it at points but not cutting it.
a solid bounded by a cylindrical surface and two parallel planes (the bases)
The mass per unit volume of an object
The straight distance from one outside curved surface through the center point to the opposite outside curved surface
A shape drawn inside a circle
the quantity of matter in an object.
The curved upper surface of a liquid column that is concave when the containing walls are wetted by the liquid and convex when not.
A triangle with one angle that is greater than 90 degrees.
a four-sided polygon with opposite sides parallel
The numerical value of the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter of approximately 3.14159
A closed plane figure with three or more straight sides
The lines of intersection created from three mutually perpendicular planes, with the three planes' point of intersection at the centroid of the part.
A solid geometric figure whose two ends are similar, equal, and parallel rectilinear figures, and whose sides are parallelograms
The distance from the center point to the outside curved surface.
A four-sided polygon with four right angles
a polygon with all sides and all angles equal
A triangle that has a 90 degree angle
A polygon with four equal sides and four right angles
is the sum of all the areas of the faces of a three-dimensional solid.
A line that intersects a circle or an arc at one and only one point.
A table located in the bottom right-hand corner of an engineering drawing that identifies, in an organized way, all of the necessary information that is not given on the drawing itself. Also referred to as a title strip.
a three-sided polygon
Each angular point of a polygon, polyhedron, or other figure
The amount of three-dimensional space occupied by an object or enclosed within a container.
A four-sided polygon.
To add explanatory notes to a drawing.
A group of machined or handmade parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit.
A drawing that shows parts of an item when assembled.
Cartesian Coordinate System
A rectangular coordinate system created by three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes, commonly labeled X, Y, and Z.
A part or element of a larger whole.
Computer-Aided Design or Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD)
1. When used in the context of design: the use of a computer to assist in the process of designing a part, circuit, building, etc. 2. When used in the context of drafting: the use of a computer to assist in the process of creating, storing, retrieving, modifying, plotting, and communicating a technical drawing.
Degree of Freedom
The variables by which an object can move. In assemblies, an object floating free in space with no constraints to another object can be moved along three axes of translation and around three axes of rotation. Such a body is said to have six degrees of freedom.
The set of input values of a function.
1. A manufacturing process that forces material through a shaped opening. 2. A modeling process that creates a three-dimensional form by defining a closed two-dimensional shape and a length.
1. A relationship from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) that assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. 2. The action or actions that an item is designed to perform.
Constant, non-numerical relationships between the parts of a geometric figure. Examples include parallelism, perpendicularity, and concentricity.
The promotion and selling of products or services.
The process of choosing and using appropriate mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to improve decisions.
A model or replica of a machine or structure for instructional or experimental purposes. Also referred to as an Appearance Model.
A visual, mathematical, or three-dimensional representation in detail of an object or design, often smaller than the original.
A fixed point from which coordinates are measured.
Materials used to wrap or protect goods.
A repeated decorative design. Or a customary way of operation or behavior.
A physical representation of an object. Prototypes and appearance models are physical models.
A full-scale working model used to test and improve a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.
The set of output values of a function.
Creating a 3D solid or surface by revolving a 2D shape about an axis.
Turning around an axis or center point.
A rounded exterior blend between two surfaces.
An enlarged or reduced representation of an object that is usually intended for study purposes.
Making an impression or crease in a box blank to facilitate bending, folding, or tearing.
A type of 3D CAD modeling that represents the volume of an object, not just its lines and surfaces.
An assembled part that is a part of a larger assembly.
Motion in which all particles of a body move with the same velocity along parallel paths.
The degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to the actual (or accepted) value.
Arrowheads are used to indicate the end of a dimension line or leader.
A measuring instrument having two adjustable jaws typically used to measure diameter or thickness.
A group of values that is used to analyze the distribution of data.
To change money, stocks, or units in which a quantity is expressed into others of a different kind.
Facts and statistics used for reference or analysis.
A group of individual values or bits of information that are related in some way or have some common characteristic or attribute.
A measurable extent, such as the three principal dimensions of an object as in width, height, and depth.
A method of visually displaying a distribution of data values where each data value is shown as a dot or mark above a number line. Also known as a dot plot.
The rate at which something occurs over a particular period or in a given sample.
A diagram showing the relation between variable quantities, typically of two variables measured along a pair of lines at right angles.
A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
A non-governmental global organization whose principal activity is the development of technical standards through consensus.
International System of Units (SI)
An international system of units of measurement consisting of seven base units.
A method of visually displaying a distribution of data values where each data value is shown as a dot or mark above a number line. Also known as a dot plot.
A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by adding the values in a list and then dividing by the number of values in the list.
To determine the size, amount, or degree of an object by comparison with a standard unit.
A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of a list of values is the value appearing at the center of a sorted version of the list - or the mean of the two central values if the list contains an even number of values.
The value that occurs most frequently in a given data set.
A function that represents the distribution of variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph.
See this picture.
A graph in the coordinate plane representing a set of bivariate data.
The digits in a decimal number that carry meaning contributing to the precision or accuracy of the quantity.
The distance of a value in a population (or sample) from the mean value of the population (or sample).
Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on data.
A standard quantity in terms of which other quantities may be expressed.
US Customary Measurement System
System of measurement used in the United States.
A change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level.
Oblique pictorial where depth is represented as half scale compared to the height and width scale.
Oblique pictorial where height, width, and depth are represented at full scale.
A line which defines the center of arcs, circles, or symmetrical parts.
lightly drawn lines to guide drawing other lines and shapes.
The measurement associated with an object's front-to-back dimension or extent of something from side to side.
A line which represents distance.
1. The documents that are required for something or that give evidence or proof of something. 2. Drawings or printed information that contain instructions for assembling, installing, operating, and servicing.
A formal graphical representation of an object containing information based on the drawing type.
The line along which two surfaces of a solid meet.
A regular oval shape, traced by a point moving in a plane so that the sum of its distances from two other points is constant, or resulting when a cone is cut by an oblique plane which does not intersect the base.
Line which represents where a dimension starts and stops.
Sketching which is done manually without the aid of instruments such as rulers.
A network of lines that cross each other to form a series of squares or rectangles.
The measurement associated with an object's top-to-bottom dimension.
A line type that represents an edge that is not directly visible.
A form of pictorial sketch in which all three drawing axes form equal angles of 120 degrees with the plane of projection.
Line which indicates dimensions of arcs, circles and detail.
1. A long thin mark on a surface. 2. A continuous extent of length, straight or curved, without breadth or thickness; the trace of a moving point. 3. Long, narrow mark or band.
Standardization of lines used on technical drawings by line weight and style.
Also called line width. The thickness of a line, characterized as thick or thin.
A line which indicates that a very long objects with uniform detail is drawn foreshortened.
To make something, especially on a large scale using machinery.
The process of using dimensions, quantity, or capacity by comparison with a standard in order to mark off, apportion, lay out, or establish dimensions.
A drawing which contains views of an object projected onto two or more orthographic planes.
A heavy solid line used on a drawing to represent the outline of an object.
A form of pictorial in which an object is represented as true width and height, but the depth can be any size and drawn at any angle.
A method of representing three-dimensional objects on a plane having only length and breadth. Also referred to as Right Angle Projection.
A form of pictorial sketch in which vanishing points are used to provide the depth and distortion that is seen with the human eye.
A sketch that shows an object's height, width, and depth in a single view.
A flat surface on which a straight line joining any two points would wholly lie.
A location in space.
An outline of an object when viewed from one side.
An imaginary line that is used to locate or project the corners, edges, and features of a three-dimensional object onto an imaginary two-dimensional surface.
An imaginary surface between the object and the observer on which the view of the object is projected and drawn.
1. The relationship of one thing to another in size, amount, etc. 2. Size or weight relationships among structures or among elements in a single structure. Orharmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole (as in a design)
1. A straight-edged strip of rigid material marked at regular intervals that is used to measure distances. 2. A proportion between two sets of dimensions used to develop accurate, larger or smaller prototypes, or models.
The representation of light and shade on a sketch or map.
Line which shows where part is broken to reveal detail behind the part or to shorten a long continuous part.
A two-dimensional contour that characterizes an object or area, in contrast to three-dimensional form.
A rough representation of the main features of an object or scene and often made as a preliminary study.
A three-dimensional body or geometric figure.
Technical Working Drawing
A drawing that is used to show the material, size, and shape of a product for manufacturing purposes.
Having the dimensions of height, width, and depth.
The general effect of color or of light and shade in a picture.
Having the dimensions of height and width, height and depth, or width and depth only.
A vanishing point is a point in space, usually located on the horizon, where parallel edges of an object appear to converge.
Colloquial term for views of an object projected onto two or more orthographic planes in a multi-view drawing.
The measurement associated with an object's side-to-side dimension.
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