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Chapter 27: Nutrition and Fluids
Terms in this set (130)
Having an adequate amount of water in body tissues is
________________ is the amount of fluid taken in.
The loss of appetite is
The amount of fluid lost is
A substance that is ingested, digested, absorbed, and used by the body is a
__________ is difficulty or discomfort in swallowing.
The breathing of fluid, food, vomitus, or an object into the lungs is
The many processes involved in the ingestion, digestion, absorption, and use of food and fluids by the body is
The amount of energy produced from the burning of food by the body is a
A decrease in the amount of water in body tissues is
A __________________ is a calibrated container use to measure fluid.
________________________ is the swelling of body tissues with water.
A soft, waxy substance found in the bloodstream and all body cells is ____________________.
Which of these occur when the person has a poor diet and poor eating habits?
Increased risk for accidents and injuries
Body fuel for energy is found in
Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
All of these food choices are included in Myplate except
Eating high-fat foods
The amount needed from each food group in Myplate depends on
The age, sex, and physical activity of the person
Whole grains in the group include
Bulgur, Oatmeal, and brown rice
When choosing from the protein food group, foods that may have a higher risk for heart disease are those
That are high in fat and cholesterol
All of these are food groups in Myplate except
An example of moderate physical activity in Myplate is
Bicycling at less than 10 miles per hour
Which nutrient is needed for tissue growth and repair?
Which vitamins is needed for the formation of substances that hold tissue together?
Food labels have all of this information except
All vitamins and minerals in the food.
A cultural group that eats a diet high in sodium is in
All pork and pork products are forbidden by
Muslims or Islam
People with limited incomes often buy
When people buy cheaper foods, the diet may lack
Protein and certain vitamins and minerals
Appetite can be stimulated by
Aromas and thoughts of food
Nutritional needs increase to fight infection and heal tissue.
All of these may occur with aging except
Increases in taste and smell
Requirements for food served in nursing centers are
All of these are requirements for food served in long-term care centers except
All food is served at room temperature
A general diet
Has no dietary limits or restrictions
The body needs no more than
When the body tissues swell with water, what organ has to work harder?
When you are caring for a person with diabetes, you should do all of these except
Give the person extra food and snacks whenever it is requested.
A person may be given a mechanical soft diet because
The person has chewing problems
If you are serving a meal to a person on fiber and residue-restricted diet, the meal would not include
Raw fruits and vegetables
A person who has serious burns would receive a
When a person has dysphagia, the thickness of food served is chosen by the
Speech-language pathologist, occupational therapist, dietitian, and doctor or nurse
All of these may be a sign of a swallowing problem except
Person is able to eat a regular diet without problems
When assisting a person who is on aspiration precautions, you can help to prevent aspiration while
As upright a position as the nurse and care plan direct
If fluid intake exceeds fluid output, the person will
Have edema (swelling) in the tissues
How much fluid is needed every day for normal fluid balance?
2000 to 2500 ml
If a person you are caring for has an order for restricted fluids, which of these should you do?
Remove the water mug or keep it out of sight.
When you are keeping I&O records, you should measure all of these as intake except
Mashed potatoes and creamed vegetables
When you are measuring I&O, you need to know that 1 ounce equals
When you are using the graduate to measure output, you read the amount by
Placing the graduate at eye level to read it
When I&O is ordered, which of the following is not included in the measurement?
When residents are served meals in a family dining program
They serve themselves as at home.
Which of the following needs to be done before the person is served a meal?
Check the person's position
You can provide comfort during meals by doing all of these except
Giving complete personal hygiene and a linen change.
What should you do if a food tray has not been served within 15 mins?
Recheck the food temperature
How can you make sure the food tray is complete
Check items on the tray with the dietary card.
If you become impatient while feeding a resident with dementia, you should
Talk to the nurse
When you are feeding a person, you should
Use a teaspoon because it is less likely to cause injury.
When feeding a person, liquids are given
During the meal, alternating with solid foods.
When delegated to provide drinking water, what information do you need from the nurse and the care plan?
If a person can have ice
When re-heating cooked foods, it should be heated
According to agency policy
A safe temperature for hot food is
140F or higher
Food and Drug Administration
Intake and output
Non per os; nothing by mouth
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987
United States Department of Agriculture
How many calories are in each of these?
1 gram of fat?
1 gram of protein?
1 gram of carbohydrate?
- 9 calories
- 4 calories
- 4 calories
The dietary guidelines for Americans are for persons
- 2 years of age and older
- At risk for chronic disease
Certain diseases are linked to poor diet and lack of physical activity. They are:
- Cardiovascular disease
- Some cancers
The dietary guidelines help people
- Attain and maintain a healthy weight
- Reduce the risk of chronic disease
- Promote over-all health
The dietary guidelines focus on
- Consuming fewer calories
- Making informed food choices
- Being physically active
What are the 5 food groups in Myplate?
- Protein foods
When using Myplate, calories are balanced by
- Eating less
- Avoiding over-sized portions
When making food choices, which foods are increased in the diet?
- Making half of your plate fruits and vegetables
- Making at least half of your grains whole grains
- Drinking fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk
Build and maintains bone mass throughout life
Provide B vitamins and Vitamin E
May prevent constipation
May reduce risk of kidney stones ___________ or _____________.
Vegetable and Fruit
May prevent birth defects
Grains, vegetables, and fruits
May help lower calorie intake ___________ or _________________.
Provides nutrients needed for health and body maintenance
What is the most important nutrient?
If dietary fat is not needed by the body, it is stored as
Body fat (adipose tissue)
What is the function of each of these nutrients?
- Needed for tissue growth and repair
- Provide energy and fiber for bowel elimination
- Provide energy
- Needed for certain body processes
- Used for many body processes (bone and tooth
formation, nerve and muscle function, fluid
balance, and other body processes)
- Needed for all body processes
Which vitamins can be stored by the body?
A, D, E, and K
Which vitamins must be ingested daily?
C and B complex
What vitamin is important for these functions? Formation of substances that hold tissues together, healthy blood vessels, skin, gums, bones, and teeth; wound healing; prevention of bleeding; resistance to infection
Milk and milk products, liver, green leafy vegetables, eggs, breads, and cereals are good sources of which vitamin?
What mineral allows red blood cells to carry oxygen?
When the diet does not have enough ____________, it may affect nerve function, muscle contraction, and heat function.
Calcium is needed for
Forming bones and teeth, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and heart and nerve function
What information is found on food labels?
- Serving size and the number of servings in each package
- Calories and calories from fat
- Nutrients—total fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrate, protein, vitamins A and C, calcium, and iron
Those who practice ____________________ as their religion eat only fish with scales and fins.
Judaism (Jewish faith)
Alcohol and coffee are avoided or not allowed by these religious groups.
- Adventist (Seventh-Day Adventist)
- Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon)
What religious group may have members that fast from meals on certain Fridays of the year?
Nutritional needs increase during illness when the body must
Fight infection, heal tissue, and replace lost blood
Older persons need _________________________ calories than younger people do.
Why do the diets of some older people lack protein?
High-protein foods are often costly
What OBRA requirement relates to the temperature of foods served in long-term care centers?
Hot food must be served hot. Cold food is served cold. Food servers keep food at the correct temperature.
What foods are included in a clear-liquid diet?
Foods that are liquid at body temperature, leave a small amount of residue, and are non-irritating and non-gas forming (water, tea, and coffee without milk or cream; carbonated drinks; gelatin; clear fruit juices; fat-free clear broth; hard candy, sugar, and popsicles)
When the person receives a full-liquid diet, it will include all of the foods on the clear-liquid diet as well as these foods:
Custard; eggnog; strained soups; strained fruit and vegetable juices; milk and milk-shakes; strained, cooked cereals; plain ice cream and sherbet; pudding; yogurt
If a person has poorly fitted dentures and has chewing problems, the doctor may order a ____________________ diet.
A person who is constipated and has other GI disorders may receive a ___________________ diet. The foods in this diet increase the ______________________ to stimulate _________________.
High-fiber; amount of residue and fiber in the colon; peristalsis I
If a person is receiving a high-calorie diet, the calorie intake is ____________________ daily.
increased to about 3000 to 4000 calories
What vegetable juices are high in sodium?
Tomato, V-8, bloody Mary mixes
When a person is receiving a diabetic diet, the same amount of _______________ are eaten each day.
Carbohydrates, protein, and fats
If you are feeding a person a dysphagia diet, what observations should be reported to the nurse immediately?
A. _________________________, ____________________________, or _____________________ during or after meal.
B. ___________________________ or __________________________________.
A. Choking; coughing; difficulty breathing
B. Abnormal breathing; respiratory sounds
Why is it important to offer water often to older persons?
Older persons have a decreased sense of thirst. Their bodies need water but they may not feel thirsty.
When you give oral hygiene to a person who is receiving nothing by mouth, the person must not
Swallow any fluid
List the amount of milliliters in the following:
A. 1 ounce equals _________ ml
B. 1 pint equals about _______ ml
C. 1 quart equals about ________ ml
What information do you need when you are delegated to measure intake and output?
- If the person has a special fluid order
- When to report measurements—hourly or end-of-shift
- What the person uses for voiding—urinal, bedpan, commode, or specimen pan
- If the person has a catheter
- What specific resident concerns to report at once
What 2 types of dining programs may be used with persons who are quietly confused?
Social dining and low-stimulation dining
What can be done to promote comfort when preparing residents for meals?
- Assist with elimination needs.
- Make sure eyeglasses and hearing aids are in place.
- Assist with oral hygiene. Make sure dentures are in place.
- Make sure an incontinent person is clean and dry.
- Position the person in a comfortable position.
- Assist the person with hand-washing.
If a food tray is not served within 15 mins, what should be checked?
The temperature of the food
When you are delegated to serve meal trays, what information do you need from the nurse or care plan?
- The person's food allergies (if any)
- What adaptive equipment the person uses
- How much help the person needs opening cartons, cutting food, and buttering bread
- It the person's intake is measured
- If calorie counts are done
- When to report observations
- What patient or resident concerns to report at once
When you are serving meal trays, you make sure the right person gets the right tray by
- Checking the ID bracelet against the dietary card (use 2 identifiers)
- Calling the person by name
When you are feeding a person, the spoon should be filled
One-third (1/3) full
Why is it important to sit facing the person when you feed him or her?
- Shows the person that you have time for him or her (more relaxing)
- Can see how well the person is eating
- Can see if the person has trouble swallowing
What should be reported after you have fed a person?
- The amount and kind of food eaten
- Complaints of nausea or dysphagia
- Signs and symptoms of dysphagia
- Signs and symptoms of aspiration
Explain each of the concepts below that are recommended by the USDA to keep food safe.
A. clean ____________________
B. Separate ____________________
C. Cook _________________
D. Chill ___________________
A. Wash hands, utensils, and counter tops often.
B. Avoid cross-contamination. Do not let raw meat, poultry, or their juices touch other foods that will not be cooked.
C. Cook food to a safe internal temperature. Use a food thermometer to check internal temperature. when re-heating cooked food, re-heat to 165F.
D. Refrigerate or freeze food within 2 hours. If the air is 90oF or above, chill food within 1 hour.
The safe temperature to keep foods at are
A. cold foods _____________________
B. Hot foods _______________________
C. The danger zone for food is _________________ for more than _________________ hours or _______________________ hour if temperature is warmer than 90F.
D. Keep the refrigerator at _____________ or below. Keep the freezer at ____________ below.
A 40oF or below
B 140oF or above
C 40oF to 140oF; 2; 1
D 40oF or below; 0oF or below
When a nursing center uses 24-hour catering or mobile food carts, it allows the residents to have freedom and
When you respect the person's likes and dislikes of food or complaints about the food, it meets the right to
When family memebers bring food to a resident, it is important that you tell ______________. The food must not interfere with with the ________________.
- The nurse
- the person's diet
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