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Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Ninth Edition: Chapter 4 Psychoanalytic Therapy
Terms in this set (28)
The Structure of Personality: The Id
The Demanding Child. Ruled by the pleasure principle.
The Structure of Personality: The Ego
The Traffic Cop. Ruled by the reality principle.
The Structure of Personality: The Superego
The Judge. Ruled by the moral principle.
Conscious and Unconscious
Conscious: What's on the surface - i.e. logic, reality. Unconscious: What lies deep, below the surface i.e. drives, instincts.
Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious:
Dreams, slips of the tongue, Posthypnotic suggestions, Material derived from free-association and projective techniques, Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms. NOTE: consciousness is only a thin slice of the total mind.
Feeling of dread resulting from repressed feelings, memories and desires. Develops out of conflict among the id, ego and superego to control psychic energy.
Three types of anxiety:
Are normal behaviors which operate on an unconscious level and tend to deny or distort reality. Help the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed. Have adaptive value if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality.
Ego-Defense Mechanisms (list)
The Development of Personality
First year: ORAL STAGE
Ages 1-3: ANAL STAGE
Ages 3-6: PHALLIC STAGE
Ages 6-12: LATENCY STAGE
Ages 12-60: GENITAL STAGE
Erikson's Psychosocial Perspective
Psychosocial stages refer to Erickson's basic psychological and social tasks to be mastered from infancy through old age. Erikson's theory of development holds that psychosexual growth and psychosocial growth take place together. During each psychosocial stage, we are faced with a specific crises that must be resolved in order to move forward.
The Therapeutic Process
The goal is to make the unconscious conscious and strengthen the ego so that behavior is based more on reality and less on instinctual cravings or irrational guilt. Analysts use blank-screen approach to foster transference relationship. Analysts help clients to achieve insight into their problems, increase their awareness of ways to change, and thus gain more control over their lives. Pushing the client too rapidly or offering ill-timed interpretations will render the process ineffective.
Transference occurs when the client reacts to the therapist as he or she did to an earlier significant other
Countertransference is the reaction of the therapist toward the client that may interfere with objectivity
Resistance is anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the production of unconscious material
Psychoanalytic Techniques: Maintaining the Analytic Framework
Therapist uses a range of procedural and stylistic factors (e.g., the analyst's relative anonymity, the regularity and consistency of meetings).
Psychoanalytic Techniques: Analysis of Resistance
Therapist helps clients become aware of the reasons for their resistance so that they can deal with them.
Psychoanalytic Techniques: Analysis of Transference
Therapist uses this technique as a route to elucidating the client's intrapsychic life.
Client reports immediately without censoring any feelings or thoughts.
Therapist points out, explains, and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed.
Therapist uses the "royal road to the unconscious" to bring unconscious material to light.
Application to Group Counseling
Group work provides a rich framework for working through transference feelings. The group becomes a microcosm of members' everyday lives.
Projections onto the leader and members are valuable clues to unresolved conflicts within the person that can be identified, explored, and worked through in the group.
Jung's Analytical Psychology
An elaborate explanation of human nature that combines ideas from history, mythology, anthropology, and religion.
Places central importance on psychological changes associated with midlife.
Achieving individuation—the harmonious integration of the conscious and unconscious aspects of personality—is an innate and primary goal.
To become integrated, it is essential to accept our dark side, or shadow.
Dreams are aimed at integration and resolution; they contain messages from the deepest layer of the unconscious, the collective unconscious, our source of creativity.
The images of universal experiences contained in the collective unconscious are called archetypes (the persona, the anima and animus, and the shadow).
Emphasizes interpersonal relationships as these are represented intrapsychically, and as they influence our interactions with people.
Emphasizes how we use interpersonal relationships (self objects) to develop our own sense of self.
Emphasizes the interactive process between client and therapist.
Brief Psychodynamic Therapy
Applies the principles of psychodynamic theory and therapy to treating selective disorders within 10 to 25 sessions.
Strengths from a Diversity Perspective
Erikson's psychosocial approach, with its emphasis on critical issues in stages of development, has particular application to people of color.
This approach stresses the value of intensive psychotherapy for therapists, to help them become aware of their own sources of countertransference, including biases, prejudices, and racial or ethnic stereotypes.
Limitations from a Diversity Perspective
Perceived as being based on upper- and middle-class values.
Cost of treatment is prohibitive for many people.
Cultural expectations may lead clients to want more direction and structure from the professional.
Generally more concerned with long-term personality reconstruction than with short-term problem solving.
Approach fails to address social, cultural, and political factors that are oppressive to clients.
Contributions of Classical Analysis
Helps therapists understand: Human behavior from a psychosexual perspective, which can be a powerful framework when paired with the psychosocial perspective.That unfinished business can be worked through to provide a new ending to events that have restricted clients emotionally.
Helps therapists understand: The value of concepts such as unconscious motivation, the influence of early development, transference, countertransference, and resistance. How the overuse of ego defenses keep clients from functioning effectively.
Limitations of Classical Analysis
This approach may not be appropriate for all cultures or socioeconomic groups. Deterministic focus does not emphasize current maladaptive behaviors. Minimizes role of the environment.
Requires subjective interpretation. Relies heavily on client fantasy. Lengthy treatment may not be practical or affordable for many clients.
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