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the development of industry on an extensive scale

First country to industrialize


Factors of production

Land, labor, capital, entrepeneur

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)

Karl Marx

German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894). (p. 709)

Communist Manifesto

a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views


the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
, a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership

Traditional economy (features, examples & definition)

An economy in which production is based on customs and traditions and economic roles are typically passed down from one generation to the next.

Command economy (features, examples & definition)

An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.

Market economy (features, examples & definition)

an economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices


policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy


a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages


the social class between the lower and upper classes

Labor unions

Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.

Major reforms to living conditions during the Industrial Revolution


Major reforms to working conditions during the Industrial Revolution



a political theory advocating state ownership of industry

Agricultural Revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering, A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.

Berlin Conference

Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.

Reasons European nations able to take over Africans


Significance of Ethiopia

African country, defeated Italy, able to stay independent during imperialism

Causes of Imperialism (economic, social, political, religious,

Industrialization caused many European nations to look outside their country for more resources to fuel their industrial production. They looked to Africa and Asia as sources of raw materials and as markets for finished products. This caused Europeans to practice the policy of Imperialism-where a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially.

White Man's Burden

idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized

Maxim machine gun


Cause of low food supply and lack of economy diversity in Africa


Sepoy Mutiny

discontent with British administration in India led to numerous mutinies in 1857 and 1858 noun
Ex. the revolt was put down after several battles and seiges (notably the seige at Lucknow)

The Amritsar Massacre

In April 1919, thousands of Indians unaware of a ban on public meetings, gathered for the Hindu religions festival in Amritsar. Army officer ordered o open fire, killing over 400 people and wounding more than 1,200. India stood on the edge of Nationalist violence.

Non-violent civil disobedience

A philosophy of opposing a law one considers unjust by peacefully violating it and allowing oneself to be punished as a result.

Mohandas Gandhi

A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change

Division of India into Muslin and Hindu areas

creates conflicts, between two groups, leads Great Britain to split them up. ➪ Partition of India- Pakistan, India, etc.

Salt March

Gandhi led a march over 240 miles to protest the British monopoly on salt in India

Opium War

War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Mao Zedong

Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)

Sun Yet-San

1st Nationalist, Chinese leader who tries to get rid of imperialism

Long March

The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.

Chinese Civil War of 1946-1949

Nationalist (Jeishi) vs. Communist (Mao), after WW2, when got rid of common enemy, Japan. Fighting for control, ➪ Communists win

Significance of the Meiji Restoration

shows modernization of Japan, of certain Western ideas

Cause(s) of Japan opening its doors to foreign trade


Sino-Japanese War


Russo-Japanese War


Arch Duke Francis Ferdinand

his assaination contributed to the outbreak of WWI

The Schlieffan Plan

a strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting on 2 fronts

Woodrow Wilson

28th President of the United States noun
Ex. led the United States in World War I and secured the formation of the League of Nations (1856-1924)


ancient region and Roman province of the Iberian peninsula noun
Ex. corresponds roughly to modern Portugal and parts of Spain


territory disputed by Germany and France, one cause of WW1

The Blank Check

A symbolic figure sent to Austria- Hungary by Germany saying that Germany will have Austria- Hungary's back no-matter what.

Zimmerman Note

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

Armistice of Nov. 11, 1918


Paris Peace Conference of 1919


Major provisions of the Treaty of Versailles


Countries created out of the Treaty of Versailles


Causes of WWI

1)Assassination of Franz Ferdinand,
4)Alliance System,

Russian Revolution

the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917

Western Front

In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.


a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations

Central Powers

in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies

Allied Powers

the coalition formed by Britain and her colonies (including Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India), France and Russia from the beginning of the war, and later other countries including Belgium, Italy and the United States.

Effects of technology from the Industrial Revolution on WWI


Austria's Ultimatum

If Serbia doesn't take fault for the deaths allow secret police, get rid of anti-Austrian-Hungary groups. Austria-Hungary will attack

Why Italy switched sides during WWI


Effects of the Treaty of Versailles

Germany blamed for war, end of war, eauge of nations

Romanov Dynasty

Ruling family of Russia

Causes of the Russian Revolution

World War 1 Large number of peasants shortage of food not industrialized no power to legislature Czar Nicholas absolute ruler Vladimir Rasputin


Siberian peasant monk who was religious advisor in the court of Nicholas II noun
Ex. was assassinated by Russian noblemen who feared that his debauchery would weaken the monarchy (1872-1916)

White Army

The Army of supporters of monarchy and the old order

Red Army

the regular army of the former Soviet Union

Provisional Government

The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.

Vladimir Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953

Great Purge

(1934), stalin cracked down on Old Bolsheviks, his net soon widened to target army heroes, industrial managers, writers and citizens, they were charged with a wide range of crimes, from plots to failure to not meeting production quotas

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

This treaty ended Russias participation in the war.

5 Year Plan

Stalin's economics. Forced, rapid industrialization, targets for production. Devastating to agriculture, complete state takeover

Totalitarian government (characteristics and examples during 1920s)

a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it...

Weimar Republic

..., The new German republic the in 1921 owed 33 billion annually to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States.

Global depression

world wide recession which was far worse in defeated powers

Fascism (characteristics, examples, leaders)


Adolf Hitler

German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)

Mein Kampf

"My Struggle"


space sought for occupation by a nation whose population is expanding

Non-aggression Pact of 1939

agreement between Joseph Stalin and Hitler to divide Eastern Europe

Weaknesses of the League of Nations


Axis Powers

Germany, Italy, and Japan

Early US policy of WWII


Battle of Stalingrad

Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.

Significance of Dunkirk


Cause of US entry into WWII


First invasion of WWII



planned June 5th June 6 1944 Germans occupied Normandy France Germans though it would occur at Calais and goal was to liberate Paris


systematic killing of a racial or cultural group


the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler

"Iron Curtain"


Goals of Truman Doctrine



the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)


(military) the act of containing something or someone


an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security

Warsaw Pact

treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania

Marshall Plan

a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)

Domino Theory

the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

First industry to industrialize

Textiles (woven clothes)

Industrial Revolution

the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation

The Wealth of Nations

Adam Smith argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity, strong supporter of laissez faire, government has duty to protect society

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