15 terms

Beliefs, Scientific Evidence, Key Words ToK

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What is Epistemology?
A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and acquisition of knowledge

"How do we know what we know?"
What are the 5 methods of knowing?
Method of Tenacity, Method of Intuition, Method of Authority, Rational Method, Empirical Method
What is the Method of Tenacity?
When someone clings to their beliefs

ex. Superstitions
What is the Method of Intuition?
When someone goes on a hunch

ex. common sense
What is the Method of Authority?
When someone blindly trusts the "experts"

ex. reading an article and immediately trusting the author
What is the Rational Method?
When someone uses logical reasoning

ex. Anna was having trouble sleeping, often waking up in the middle of the night and being unable to go back to sleep. She had been under a lot of stress at work, and figured that stress must be the cause.
What is the Empirical (working hypothesis that can be tested using observation and experiment) Method?
When someone uses observation through senses

ex. Using the standard knowledge of standard objects and documenting the results
When it comes the Scientific Method, what are the two Methods of Knowing that we see the most?
The Rational Method and The Empirical Method
Describe Beliefs
Based on authority and/or intuition, No evidence necessary, Maintained in the face of counter-evidence
Describe Scientific Explanation
Empirical evidence based on observations, Changed in the face of counter-evidence, Attempt to reduce bias in observations
What is the difference between Beliefs and Scientific Evidence?
Beliefs are usually things that cannot be changed in the face of counter-evidence, usually having to do with where you came from and what you grew up with whereas Scientific explanations are prone to being changed when it comes to counter-evidence, actually based of observations

(Thoughts vs. Factual)
What is Confirmation Bias?
The tendency to seek out data that confirms (rather than contradicts) your hypothesis 6
When is a conclusion logically valid?
It MUST be true, given the premises?

Valid: Charlie uses either a Mac or a PC. He doesn't us a Mac. He must use a PC.

Invalid: All wealthy people live in mansions. Some politicians live in mansions. Some politicians are wealthy.
What is psychological science?
The systematic process of hypothesizing, predicting, and observing psychological phenomena with the intention of generating new knowledge
What is the Criterion of Falsifiability?
For a hypothesis, theory, or enterprise to be regarded as scientific, it must be falsifiable on the basis of some physical observation

The absence of evidence is not evidence