The position that we can know nothing: that all our methods of gaining knowledge are inherently flawed and that we cannot rely on any of them exclusively.
Pronouncing claims as undeniably true, without consideration of the evidence (or the opinions of others).
The study of how we come to know things, and the characteristics of the knowledge claims we make. (This is basically the philosophical discipline which has been recreated of some sorts in the IB as ToK).
A lack of objectivity. To approach an investigation with predetermined views of the outcome (it doesn't matter if it are consciously perceived or not).
The quality of an argument: measuring if it is strong (induction) or valid (deduction) and also refers to the premises.
The view that the impressions of the world, which we derive through our senses, are accurate.
The view that we "construct" or "create" our understanding of the world through the ways in which we incorporate our interpretations of the stimuli provided by the world.
Any philosophy that suggests that explanations can be generated in terms of some interaction between two "poles".
The philosophical view that ideas (non-physical) are basis of reality; or that we can understand reality only insofar as we can understand our ideas.
An approach that focuses on practicability. As a theory of truth, a claim can be accepted as true if it "works": if the claim "works" insofar as it explains some phenomena and related matters.
The quality of a theory in which the parts fit together and connect to each other. As a theory of truth, the Coherence Theory claims that a statement is true if it coheres with other claims we accept as true.
A theory of truth that notes we can claim that a statement is true only if what it claims corresponds to the way the world is.
A technical term to describe the property of a deductive argument when it is not possible or the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true. In a non-technical sense, it simply means the state of being true or justified
The evaluation of an action in terms of what the action produces, that is, the consequences of the action.
The expression of what is considered important, usually in terms of being important to people and their relation to others and the rest of the world.
The contents of a declarative proposition: Some "X" is stated to be the case. The nature of "X" may well depend upon the particular AoK.
A claim that because X and Y have some properties in common, they will have other (relevant) properties in common.
Literally: "Beyond the physical". These phenomena lie outside (or beyond) the empirical realm.
A study of the way in which some process is undertaken.
The process whereby one action, event, phenomenon is sufficient to produce another action, event, phenomenon.
Where two (or more) phenomena seem connected: a change in one is accompanied by a corresponding change in the other.
A claim that a group accept as true and generated by adhering to the methods of the relevant AoK.
A claim that is accepted as true by an individual, and unknown to others. Some personal claims may be shared with others to become shared knowledge.
The view that all our actions and choices are inevitable - that we are following a pre-set pattern, whether we know it or not.
The concept that our choices are real: that although there are things that influence our lives, we can do as we wish.
Describes the process of "breaking down" a complex phenomena into simpler, constituent phenomena. The explanation then proceeds by investigating the connections between the parts.
The intellectual, cultural, conceptual background through which we view the world and beyond.
The requirement that it must be possible to show that a claim is false in order to class it as a scientific claim.
An approach that seeks to explain a phenomena by investigating its role in a larger context.
An approach to investigations that emphasises how the (basic) parts come together to form the whole.
Describes a process whereby recognised patterns are argued to continue through space and time.
Describes a process whereby the logical connections between claims are investigated to generate new claims.
The quality of a claim that notes it applies at all times, in all places, in all cases, as defined by the parameters of the claim.
A moral philosophy that notes only those actions done in consideration of a basic principle are moral actions.
That quality that the referent of a claim is a fact.
The perspective that the processing of information can be achieved without the effects of one's personal paradigm.
The perspective that one's personal paradigm influences, to a larger or lesser degree, the way one processes information
The view that everything depends upon something (or everything) else. Anything has properties only insofar as it relates to something else.
The ethical theory that the net amount of happiness determines the rightness or wrongness of an action.
A study of what makes an action right or wrong.
A study of how one ought to live, how to act.
The claims that are made by adhering to the methods required by the relevant AoK.
An acceptance of some claim without the degree of justification that would normally be required.
The view that we can come to know things about the world through thought alone (or mainly through thought alone)
The view that we come to know things about the world primarily through the interaction of the world and our senses.
Describes the concept that we come to know the world through the perspective of human beings.
The view that there are no intrinsic values and nothing to base such values upon.
Referring to the way things ought to be.
Referring to the way things are.
Ad hoc Hypothesis
To modify a hypothesis simply to account for an anomaly so many times that the hypothesis loses its explanatory value.
For IB ToK, this refers to a possible approach. A Knowledge Question should be approachable from a number of different aspects.