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male gonads

another name for testes/testicles


oval structure responsible for production of sperm; covered by two membranes: (tunica vaginalis and tunica albuginea)

tunica vaginalis

fold of peritoneum forming during testicular descent, which covers anterior and lateral portions

tunica albuginea

white capsule of dense irregular connective tissue directily covering testicles

tunica albuginea

folds inward forming tunica septa that separates testes into 250-300 lobules

seminiferous tubules

lobules in testes contain...


production of sperm

seminiferous tubules

site of spermatogenesis and walls contain sustantacular cells

sustantacular cells

supportive cells that perform variety of functions (like providing nutrients and preventing immune attack)

interstitial cells

cells in between seminiferous tubules (sustantacular cells) that produce testosterone

ciliated cells and flowing fluid

these aid in the travel of sperm after coming from seminiferous tubules

retes testes

these spermatic ducts are a network of vessels where sperm partially matures

efferent ductules

(about 12 in each testis); ductules where sperm also partially matures, connecting rete testis with head of epididymus


sperm finishes maturing as it flow from head to tail

tail of epididymus

where sperm is stored; lasts 40-60 days and then broken down and reabsorbed

reproductive tract organs

epididymus, ductus(vas) deferens, ampulla, ejaculatory duct, urethra

vas deferens

muscular tubule that extends from inguinal canal to near urinary bladder, then passes between bladder and ureter widening into ampulla and connecting at end with duct of seminal vesicle

ejaculatory duct

extends from confluence of ampulla and seminal vesicle to prostatic urethra


extends from confluence of both ejaculatory ducts to outside


conduit to deposit sperm into vagina; has internal root and visible shaft; loose skin allows expansion

corpus spongiosum

on ventral side of penis that encloses urethra; expands at distal end to fill glans terminating in a dilated bulb

corpus cavernosum

on dorsal side of penis on each side; diverges like a Y at base; attaches penis to pubic arch

accessory glands

seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral (cowper's) glands

seminal vesicles

pair of glands posterior to the urinary bladder; produces yellowish secretion(making up 60% of sperm); alkaline secretion(containing fructose-energy for sperm and prostaglandins-motility for sperm)

prostate gland

surrounds urethra and ejaculatory duct; produces thin milky secretion(making up 30% of sperm); sol'ns are slightly acidic but contain citric acid and proteases

bulbourethral (cowper's) glands

brownish, spherical glands near the inner end of penis; produces clear fluid for lubrication of penis and to neutralize acidity in urethra


inhibited at body temp and best at 94 Fahrenheit


pouch of skin that houses the testicles and keeps them away from the body so sperm production can occur; divided into right and left compartments by median septum

median septum

divides scrotum and protects each testicle from infections from each other

cremaster and dartos muscles

muscles that control position of testes/testicles

cremaster muscle

strips of internal obliques; cause contraction when cold and draw testicles closer to body to keep warm; warmth causes relaxation

dartos muscle

subcutaneous layer of smooth muscle, which contracts when cold and wrinkles scrotum

female gonads



almond shaped structures, located in the ovarian fossa in the pelvic wall; site of oogenesis and production of hormones


covered with white capsule called tunica albuginea


where oocytes develop and mature; one to several develop per cycle simultaneously with oogenesis

follicular cells

granulosa and theca folliculi cells; these play role in support and regulation


if oocyte is fertilized it implants in...

uterine tube

conveys oocyte (fertilized zygote) from ovary to uterus


distal end of the uterine tube


projections in infundibulum

ampulla (female)

middle portion of uterine tube


narrower portion of uterine tube near the uterus

uterine tube

contains ciliated cells that beat toward uterus to guide oocyte or zygote


site of implantation, housing and providing nutrients to fetus; later involved in delivery

uterine tube

typical site of fertilization


typical site of implantation


thick muscular organ proximal of vagina; made up of Fundus, Body, and Cervix

uterine wall

perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium make up the...


external serosa of uterine wall


smooth muscle and thickest layer wall; contracts during labor


simple columnar epithelium with stroma of lymphocytes(leukocytes and macrophages); proliferates during uterine cycle; some epithelial cells produce glycogen


birth canal


membrane that forms when mucosa of vagina folds inward

acid mantle

idea that pH of vagina often acidic because catabolism of glucose and formation of lactic acid

supportive ligaments

maintain alignment of ovary, uterine tube and uterus (suspensory, broad, ovarian, uterosacral ligaments)

suspensory ligament

ligament that connects ovary to lateral wall; supports ovary laterally

ovarian ligament

ligament that connects uterus and ovary; supports ovary medially

broad ligament

ligament that flanks uterus on each side and attaches uterus to uterine tube and ovary via mesovarium; helps anchor to lateral wall of pelvis


peritoneal fold of broad ligament

uterosacral ligament

(fourth ligament not explained on slide)


external genitalia is collectively called this...


structure analogous to penis but with no urinary role

mons pubis

mound of adipose tissue that covers pubic symphysis


contains urinary and vaginal orifices

labia major

thick folds of skin around vaginal opening

labia minor

thinner and hairless folds of skin around vaginal opening

pampiniform plexus

network of blood vessels that surrounds spermatic cord; acts as countercurrent heat exchanger

primary spermatocyte

in males, this cell enters meiosis

secondary spermatocyte

in males, this is the cell that is present right after meiosis 1 is complete

seminal vesicle

secretes 60% of total volume of seminal fluid

seminal vesicle

secretes an alkaline secretion the contains sugar, fibrinogen and prostaglandin

prostate gland

secretes 30% of total volume of seminal fluid

prostate gland

secretes milky alkaline fluid that contains enzymes for sperm activation and prostaglandins

bulbourethral (cowper's) glands

secretion precedes semen thru urethra

bulbourethral (cowper's) glands

secretes a clear alkaline mucous that lubricates urethra and neutralizes remnants of acidic urine that could destroy sperm before passage


the hormone that stimulates ABP from sustentacular cells


binds testosterone which promotes production of sperm


hormone that stimulates release of testosterone from interstitial cells; promoting spermatogenesis


hormone released from sustentacular cells


hormone that inhibits FSH release and LH release(no testoterone coming from interstitial cell)


low or absent sperm count that may be due to blockage of ducts or hormonal problems

defective sperm

abnormalities or reduced motility of sperm

primary spermatocyte

once crossed the basal compartment into the adluminal compartment, the spermatogonia becomes a ________

sustentacular cells

nourish, tight junctions, produce chemicals (ABP and inhibin), secretes fluid(for transport of sperm in lumen)

secondary oocyte

this oocyte begins meisos 2 , arrests at metaphase 2 and has to be fertilized to complete meiosis 2

zona pellucida

forms barrier that protects oocyte from immune system

estrogen and inhibin

granulosa cells secrete these two chemicals

menstrual phase

days 1-5 of uterine cycle

proliferative phase

days 6-14 of uterine cycle

secretory phase

days 15-28 of uterine cycle

menstrual phase

in uterine cycle functional layer detaches; bleeding from torn spiral arteries; detached tissue eliminated via passage thru vagina

proliferative phase

in uterine cycle increase of estrogen from follicles stimulates growth of functional layer; gland cells and spiral arteries proliferate; estrogen PRIMES UTERUS for progesterone from increase in progesterone receptors; ENDS with ovulation

secretory phase

in uterine cycle progesterone from corpus luteum causes further elaboration of gland cells and spiral arteries in functional layer; gland cells secrete glycogen; functional layer maintained for several days


if fertilization happens, developing embryo releases this hormone, which maintains corpus luteum and stimulates it to continue secreting progesterone; (thus maintaining functional layer for months )


growth of endometrial-like cells in places outside of the uterine cavity

ovulation induction

treatment for infertility that includes fertility drugs

artificial insemination

sperm collection and direct insertion into uterus

in vitro fertilization

treatment for fertility that involves bypassing fallopian tube blockages; oocytes and sperm fertilized in culture dish; early blastocytes are inserted into uterus

intracellular sperm injection

single sperm is injected into cytoplasm of oocyte; bypasses sperm defects; early blastocytes are inserted in uterus

primary oocytes

at birth all female reproductive cells are:

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