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oval structure responsible for production of sperm; covered by two membranes: (tunica vaginalis and tunica albuginea)
fold of peritoneum forming during testicular descent, which covers anterior and lateral portions
supportive cells that perform variety of functions (like providing nutrients and preventing immune attack)
cells in between seminiferous tubules (sustantacular cells) that produce testosterone
ciliated cells and flowing fluid
these aid in the travel of sperm after coming from seminiferous tubules
(about 12 in each testis); ductules where sperm also partially matures, connecting rete testis with head of epididymus
muscular tubule that extends from inguinal canal to near urinary bladder, then passes between bladder and ureter widening into ampulla and connecting at end with duct of seminal vesicle
conduit to deposit sperm into vagina; has internal root and visible shaft; loose skin allows expansion
on ventral side of penis that encloses urethra; expands at distal end to fill glans terminating in a dilated bulb
on dorsal side of penis on each side; diverges like a Y at base; attaches penis to pubic arch
pair of glands posterior to the urinary bladder; produces yellowish secretion(making up 60% of sperm); alkaline secretion(containing fructose-energy for sperm and prostaglandins-motility for sperm)
surrounds urethra and ejaculatory duct; produces thin milky secretion(making up 30% of sperm); sol'ns are slightly acidic but contain citric acid and proteases
bulbourethral (cowper's) glands
brownish, spherical glands near the inner end of penis; produces clear fluid for lubrication of penis and to neutralize acidity in urethra
pouch of skin that houses the testicles and keeps them away from the body so sperm production can occur; divided into right and left compartments by median septum
strips of internal obliques; cause contraction when cold and draw testicles closer to body to keep warm; warmth causes relaxation
almond shaped structures, located in the ovarian fossa in the pelvic wall; site of oogenesis and production of hormones
where oocytes develop and mature; one to several develop per cycle simultaneously with oogenesis
simple columnar epithelium with stroma of lymphocytes(leukocytes and macrophages); proliferates during uterine cycle; some epithelial cells produce glycogen
idea that pH of vagina often acidic because catabolism of glucose and formation of lactic acid
maintain alignment of ovary, uterine tube and uterus (suspensory, broad, ovarian, uterosacral ligaments)
ligament that flanks uterus on each side and attaches uterus to uterine tube and ovary via mesovarium; helps anchor to lateral wall of pelvis
network of blood vessels that surrounds spermatic cord; acts as countercurrent heat exchanger
secretes milky alkaline fluid that contains enzymes for sperm activation and prostaglandins
bulbourethral (cowper's) glands
secretes a clear alkaline mucous that lubricates urethra and neutralizes remnants of acidic urine that could destroy sperm before passage
hormone that stimulates release of testosterone from interstitial cells; promoting spermatogenesis
hormone that inhibits FSH release and LH release(no testoterone coming from interstitial cell)
once crossed the basal compartment into the adluminal compartment, the spermatogonia becomes a ________
nourish, tight junctions, produce chemicals (ABP and inhibin), secretes fluid(for transport of sperm in lumen)
this oocyte begins meisos 2 , arrests at metaphase 2 and has to be fertilized to complete meiosis 2
in uterine cycle functional layer detaches; bleeding from torn spiral arteries; detached tissue eliminated via passage thru vagina
in uterine cycle increase of estrogen from follicles stimulates growth of functional layer; gland cells and spiral arteries proliferate; estrogen PRIMES UTERUS for progesterone from increase in progesterone receptors; ENDS with ovulation
in uterine cycle progesterone from corpus luteum causes further elaboration of gland cells and spiral arteries in functional layer; gland cells secrete glycogen; functional layer maintained for several days
if fertilization happens, developing embryo releases this hormone, which maintains corpus luteum and stimulates it to continue secreting progesterone; (thus maintaining functional layer for months )
in vitro fertilization
treatment for fertility that involves bypassing fallopian tube blockages; oocytes and sperm fertilized in culture dish; early blastocytes are inserted into uterus
intracellular sperm injection
single sperm is injected into cytoplasm of oocyte; bypasses sperm defects; early blastocytes are inserted in uterus
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