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101 terms

A&P - Chapter 27 & 28: The Reproductive System

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male gonads
another name for testes/testicles
testis
oval structure responsible for production of sperm; covered by two membranes: (tunica vaginalis and tunica albuginea)
tunica vaginalis
fold of peritoneum forming during testicular descent, which covers anterior and lateral portions
tunica albuginea
white capsule of dense irregular connective tissue directily covering testicles
tunica albuginea
folds inward forming tunica septa that separates testes into 250-300 lobules
seminiferous tubules
lobules in testes contain...
spermatogenesis
production of sperm
seminiferous tubules
site of spermatogenesis and walls contain sustantacular cells
sustantacular cells
supportive cells that perform variety of functions (like providing nutrients and preventing immune attack)
interstitial cells
cells in between seminiferous tubules (sustantacular cells) that produce testosterone
ciliated cells and flowing fluid
these aid in the travel of sperm after coming from seminiferous tubules
retes testes
these spermatic ducts are a network of vessels where sperm partially matures
efferent ductules
(about 12 in each testis); ductules where sperm also partially matures, connecting rete testis with head of epididymus
epididymus
sperm finishes maturing as it flow from head to tail
tail of epididymus
where sperm is stored; lasts 40-60 days and then broken down and reabsorbed
reproductive tract organs
epididymus, ductus(vas) deferens, ampulla, ejaculatory duct, urethra
vas deferens
muscular tubule that extends from inguinal canal to near urinary bladder, then passes between bladder and ureter widening into ampulla and connecting at end with duct of seminal vesicle
ejaculatory duct
extends from confluence of ampulla and seminal vesicle to prostatic urethra
urethra
extends from confluence of both ejaculatory ducts to outside
penis
conduit to deposit sperm into vagina; has internal root and visible shaft; loose skin allows expansion
corpus spongiosum
on ventral side of penis that encloses urethra; expands at distal end to fill glans terminating in a dilated bulb
corpus cavernosum
on dorsal side of penis on each side; diverges like a Y at base; attaches penis to pubic arch
accessory glands
seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral (cowper's) glands
seminal vesicles
pair of glands posterior to the urinary bladder; produces yellowish secretion(making up 60% of sperm); alkaline secretion(containing fructose-energy for sperm and prostaglandins-motility for sperm)
prostate gland
surrounds urethra and ejaculatory duct; produces thin milky secretion(making up 30% of sperm); sol'ns are slightly acidic but contain citric acid and proteases
bulbourethral (cowper's) glands
brownish, spherical glands near the inner end of penis; produces clear fluid for lubrication of penis and to neutralize acidity in urethra
spermatogenesis
inhibited at body temp and best at 94 Fahrenheit
scrotum
pouch of skin that houses the testicles and keeps them away from the body so sperm production can occur; divided into right and left compartments by median septum
median septum
divides scrotum and protects each testicle from infections from each other
cremaster and dartos muscles
muscles that control position of testes/testicles
cremaster muscle
strips of internal obliques; cause contraction when cold and draw testicles closer to body to keep warm; warmth causes relaxation
dartos muscle
subcutaneous layer of smooth muscle, which contracts when cold and wrinkles scrotum
female gonads
ovaries
ovaries
almond shaped structures, located in the ovarian fossa in the pelvic wall; site of oogenesis and production of hormones
ovaries
covered with white capsule called tunica albuginea
follicles
where oocytes develop and mature; one to several develop per cycle simultaneously with oogenesis
follicular cells
granulosa and theca folliculi cells; these play role in support and regulation
uterus
if oocyte is fertilized it implants in...
uterine tube
conveys oocyte (fertilized zygote) from ovary to uterus
infundibulum
distal end of the uterine tube
fimbrae
projections in infundibulum
ampulla (female)
middle portion of uterine tube
isthmus
narrower portion of uterine tube near the uterus
uterine tube
contains ciliated cells that beat toward uterus to guide oocyte or zygote
uterus
site of implantation, housing and providing nutrients to fetus; later involved in delivery
uterine tube
typical site of fertilization
uterus
typical site of implantation
uterus
thick muscular organ proximal of vagina; made up of Fundus, Body, and Cervix
uterine wall
perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium make up the...
perimetrium
external serosa of uterine wall
myometrium
smooth muscle and thickest layer wall; contracts during labor
endometrium
simple columnar epithelium with stroma of lymphocytes(leukocytes and macrophages); proliferates during uterine cycle; some epithelial cells produce glycogen
vagina
birth canal
hymen
membrane that forms when mucosa of vagina folds inward
acid mantle
idea that pH of vagina often acidic because catabolism of glucose and formation of lactic acid
supportive ligaments
maintain alignment of ovary, uterine tube and uterus (suspensory, broad, ovarian, uterosacral ligaments)
suspensory ligament
ligament that connects ovary to lateral wall; supports ovary laterally
ovarian ligament
ligament that connects uterus and ovary; supports ovary medially
broad ligament
ligament that flanks uterus on each side and attaches uterus to uterine tube and ovary via mesovarium; helps anchor to lateral wall of pelvis
mesovarium
peritoneal fold of broad ligament
uterosacral ligament
(fourth ligament not explained on slide)
vulva
external genitalia is collectively called this...
clitoris
structure analogous to penis but with no urinary role
mons pubis
mound of adipose tissue that covers pubic symphysis
vestibule
contains urinary and vaginal orifices
labia major
thick folds of skin around vaginal opening
labia minor
thinner and hairless folds of skin around vaginal opening
pampiniform plexus
network of blood vessels that surrounds spermatic cord; acts as countercurrent heat exchanger
primary spermatocyte
in males, this cell enters meiosis
secondary spermatocyte
in males, this is the cell that is present right after meiosis 1 is complete
seminal vesicle
secretes 60% of total volume of seminal fluid
seminal vesicle
secretes an alkaline secretion the contains sugar, fibrinogen and prostaglandin
prostate gland
secretes 30% of total volume of seminal fluid
prostate gland
secretes milky alkaline fluid that contains enzymes for sperm activation and prostaglandins
bulbourethral (cowper's) glands
secretion precedes semen thru urethra
bulbourethral (cowper's) glands
secretes a clear alkaline mucous that lubricates urethra and neutralizes remnants of acidic urine that could destroy sperm before passage
FSH
the hormone that stimulates ABP from sustentacular cells
ABP
binds testosterone which promotes production of sperm
LH
hormone that stimulates release of testosterone from interstitial cells; promoting spermatogenesis
inhibin
hormone released from sustentacular cells
inhibin
hormone that inhibits FSH release and LH release(no testoterone coming from interstitial cell)
azoospermia
low or absent sperm count that may be due to blockage of ducts or hormonal problems
defective sperm
abnormalities or reduced motility of sperm
primary spermatocyte
once crossed the basal compartment into the adluminal compartment, the spermatogonia becomes a ________
sustentacular cells
nourish, tight junctions, produce chemicals (ABP and inhibin), secretes fluid(for transport of sperm in lumen)
secondary oocyte
this oocyte begins meisos 2 , arrests at metaphase 2 and has to be fertilized to complete meiosis 2
zona pellucida
forms barrier that protects oocyte from immune system
estrogen and inhibin
granulosa cells secrete these two chemicals
menstrual phase
days 1-5 of uterine cycle
proliferative phase
days 6-14 of uterine cycle
secretory phase
days 15-28 of uterine cycle
menstrual phase
in uterine cycle functional layer detaches; bleeding from torn spiral arteries; detached tissue eliminated via passage thru vagina
proliferative phase
in uterine cycle increase of estrogen from follicles stimulates growth of functional layer; gland cells and spiral arteries proliferate; estrogen PRIMES UTERUS for progesterone from increase in progesterone receptors; ENDS with ovulation
secretory phase
in uterine cycle progesterone from corpus luteum causes further elaboration of gland cells and spiral arteries in functional layer; gland cells secrete glycogen; functional layer maintained for several days
hcg
if fertilization happens, developing embryo releases this hormone, which maintains corpus luteum and stimulates it to continue secreting progesterone; (thus maintaining functional layer for months )
endometriosis
growth of endometrial-like cells in places outside of the uterine cavity
ovulation induction
treatment for infertility that includes fertility drugs
artificial insemination
sperm collection and direct insertion into uterus
in vitro fertilization
treatment for fertility that involves bypassing fallopian tube blockages; oocytes and sperm fertilized in culture dish; early blastocytes are inserted into uterus
intracellular sperm injection
single sperm is injected into cytoplasm of oocyte; bypasses sperm defects; early blastocytes are inserted in uterus
primary oocytes
at birth all female reproductive cells are: