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learning objective or learning target

focus instruction and assessment, and they also focus students and teachers on the knowledge and skills intended for learning.

three fundamental steps of instruction

1. decide what the student is to learn
2. carry out the actual instruction
3. evaluate the learning

educational goals

give direction and purpose to planning overall educational activities; appear in reports prepared by state departments etc; broad goal serve as a curriculum framework within which educators can define specific learning targets

general learning target

a statement of an expected learning outcome that is derived from an educational goal

specific learning target

a clear statement about what students are to achieve at the end of a unit of instruction


statements about what students are expected to learn

mastery learning targets

statements of what students can do at the end of instruction

developmental learning targets

statements of skills and abilities that student are expected to develop continuously throughout life


any of several methods of classifying the cognitive level of learning targets, instructional activities and assessment questions or tasks

cognitive domain

learning targets that focus on memory, thinking, and reasoning

affective domain

learning targets that focus on feelings, interests, attitudes, and dispositions

psychomotor domain

learning targets that focus on motor skills and perceptual processes

bloom's taxonomy

knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation

revised taxonomy

1. knowledge dimension (factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge) 2. cognitive process dimension (remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create)

student centered

learning target focused on the student and his or her performance

performance centered

learning target involving an action verb that expresses a student performance

content centered

learning target should indicate the content to which a student's performance should apply

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