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Introduction to Psychology - Chapter 6 Study Guide (Test #2)
Terms in this set (42)
a group of related mental processes that are involved in acquiring, storing, and retrieving information and enables you to retain information over time
transforming information into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory system
retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time
-recovering information stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it
-refers to the process of accessing and retrieving stored information in long-term memory
What does encoding, storing, and retrieving have to do with memory?
Rather than being a single process, memory involves
three fundamental processes
: encoding, storage, and retrieval
The stage model is based on what idea?
from one memory stage to another
What are the stages of memory in order?
1. sensory memory
2. short-term (working) memory
3. long-term memory
Define short term memory.
temporarily holds all the information you are currently thinking about or consciously aware of
Define sensory memory.
the stage of memory that registers information from the environment and holds it for a very brief period of time
Define long-term memory.
the stage of memory that represents the long-term storage of information, potentially for a lifetime
Describe sensory memory.
-Very briefly stores sensory impressions so that they overlap slightly with one another
-Used to perceive the world as continuous, rather than as a series of disconnected visual images or disjointed sounds
What are the types of sensory memory?
Define visual sensory memory.
sometimes referred to as
because it is the brief memory of an image, or icon
What is the duration of visual sensory memory?
approximately ¼ to ½ a second
Define auditory sensory memory.
sometimes referred to as
, meaning a brief memory that is like an echo
What is the duration of auditory sensory memory?
lasts up to 3 or 4 seconds
Describe short-term memory.
-also known as the
-new information is transferred from sensory memory
-old information is retrieved from long-term memory
-limited capacity for information
What is the function of short-term memory?
provides temporary storage for information transferred from sensory and long-term memory
What is the duration of short-term memory?
about 20 seconds
How can information from short-term memory be retained longer?
-mental or verbal repetition of information
How can you increase the CAPACITY of short-term memory?
can be increased by chunking (use maintenance rehearsal to encode)
In short-term memory, why may information be lost?
due to decay or interference from new or competing information
Describe long-term memory.
-information that has been encoded in short-term memory is stored
What is the duration of long-term memory?
more than 20-seconds; potentially permanent
What can you do if maintenance rehearsal is not effective when encoding long-term memories?
may be more effective
Describe elaborative rehearsal.
-Encodes information into a form that can be retrieved later
-Focuses on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to long-term memory
-Relates the information to other information you already know
What are the types of long-term memory?
Define procedural memory.
-refers to the long-term memory of how to perform different skills, operations, and actions
-sometimes known as
Define episodic memory.
-refers to long-term memory of specific events or episodes, including the time and place
-related: autobiographical memory or personal life history
Define semantic memory.
general knowledge of facts, names, definitions, concepts
Define explicit memory.
-information or knowledge that can be
-also called declarative memory
Define implicit memory.
-information or knowledge that affects behavior or task performance but
cannot be consciously recollected
-also called non-declarative memory
What is the difference between explicit and implicit memory.
-memory with awareness
-can consciously recollect
-memory without awareness
-cannot be consciously recollected
inability to retrieve previously available information
Define retrieval cue.
clue, prompt, or hint that can help trigger recall of a stored memory
Describe Alzheimer's disease.
-destroys neurons in the brain
-gradually impairs memory, thinking, language, and other cognitive functions
-eventually results in complete inability to care for oneself
-most common form of dementia
-cause still unknown
-Alzheimer brains develop two abnormal structures: beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles
memory involving the
sequence of events
, but not the events themselves
aspects of memories
medial temporal lobe
encodes and transfers
new explicit memories to long-term memory
encodes and transfers new explicit memories to long-term memory
; muscle memory
Which two areas of the brain have similar functions? What function do they share?
Medial temporal lobe & hippocampus
-encode and transfer new explicit memories to long-term memory
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