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Ancient Egypt - History of the Old and Middle Kingdoms
This set is for the history of the Old and Middle Kingdoms of ancient Egypt.
Terms in this set (45)
a dead pharaoh's spirit
What would happen if the corpse did not have the proper care?
The former pharaoh wouldn't be able to carry out his new duties as king of the dead
To make sure the pharaoh had everything he needed for his afterlife, what items were placed along side him in his tomb?
Vessels made of clay, stone, and gold, furniture, food, and doll-like representations of servants (called ushabti)
The sacred, pointed stone (the benben) was the top stone of the pyramid. What did the benben symbolize?
The rays of the sun
Who built the pyramids - slaves, foreigners, or villagers (farmers)?
When was the majority of work done on the pyramids?
While the Nile River was flooded
What happened to the huge limestone blocks of stone after the stones were floated along the Nile to the base of the pyramids?
They were polished by hand and pushed up ramps to their desired positions
For which pharaoh was the first pyramid built?
The Great Pyramid was built for which pharaoh?
Where is the location of the Great Pyramid?
Outside the pyramid of Khafre at Giza sits the Great Sphinx. Describe the appearance of the Great Sphinx.
The Sphinx is carved out of bedrock in front of Khafre's pyramid; it depicts Khafre as a human-headed lion with the headdress of a pharaoh
During the Middle Kingdom, ancient Egypt witnessed an explosion of ________,
______, and _____ that would make it the envy (awareness by someone with the desire to posses the same) of the world.
creativity; wealth; power
Pharaohs of this time period expanded and maintained their ______ through _____ and diplomacy (conducting negotiations between nations).
In the deserts of Nubia, the ancient Egyptians mined ____ that gave Egypt is unimaginable ______ that formed the real power behind the throne.
The New Kingdom saw the start of a ______ ___ for Egyptian ____ and ___________. Pharaohs built magnificent _______ and _____ for themselves and their families.
golden age; arts; architecture; temples; tombs
- was the first great woman in record history
- dressed as a king, and even wore a false beard.
- remained in power for 20 years
- during her reign (time in power), the Egyptian economy flourished, she expanded trading relations and built magnificent temples as well as restoring many others
Thutmose III (Tuthmosis III)
- came to power after his Hatshepsut
- known for his military conquests (in bold letters)
- conquered 350 cities, areas of the Near East, Nubia, and Euphrates
- considered to be one of Egypt's greatest warrior pharaohs.
- best known for his loyalty to one deity at a time when the rest of the world worshipped several gods.
- the only ancient Egyptian pharaohs to promote a monotheistic religion.
- What is monotheism?
→ the doctrine or belief that there is only one God
- age he came to power: 9
- died mysteriously at age of 18
- his tomb was uncovered in 1922 by the archaeologist Howard Carter.
- What was contained in his tomb?
→ thousands of King Tut's tomb treasures, including the King Tut throne chair, a silver trumpet, and most recognizable, Tutankhamen sarcophagus symbols
- What is the legend/curse associated with his tomb? Death shall....come on swift wings to him that disturbs the peace of the king.
- was one of the most powerful and influential pharaohs of Egypt.
- ruled for 66 years until his death.
- known as Ramses the Great for his contributions to Egypt, including his war campaigns to the Mediterranean and into Nubia, as well as his construction projects, such as cities, temples and tombs
Which ancient Egyptian leader united Upper and Lower Egypt?
What is a dynasty?
A series of rulers from a single family
How is power passed within a dynasty?
Form father to son
Span of the Old Kingdom
2,660 - 2,180 B.C.
What was the name for the kings of ancient Egypt?
How was the role of the pharaoh in ancient Egypt different than a king in Mesopotamia?
Mesopotamian kings were representatives of the gods; pharaohs were gods
What are 8 roles/ powers of the pharaoh during the Old Kingdom?
4. Kingdom's Well-Being
5. Sun Rise
6. Nile Flood
7. Crops Grow
8. Truth and Justice
Egyptians believed that pharaohs ruled even after their death. Therefore, describe the inside of the burial chamber of a pharaoh.
The walls of the chamber were decorated with pictures of what the pharaoh would need or want; the chamber was also stocked with luxuries (i.e. fine jewelry, game boards covered with precious stones, and rich clothing); inscriptions on the tomb walls recounted the pharaohs achievements
Where were pharaohs buried in the Old Kingdom?
How many stones used to build the Great Pyramid?
Over 2 million
How much did each block for the Great Pyramid weigh?
2 ½ tons
What are the reasons why they built the pyramids for the pharaoh?
To keep busy and well fed during the flood season; for cutting and hauling stones, they were probably paid with grain from the king's storehouses; for the glory of their king
How many pyramids still stand today?
What is missing from the pyramids?
The bodies of the pharaohs
What happened toward the end of the Old Kingdom?
The power of the pharaohs began to decline; more power fell into the hands of nobles and officials; local rulers struggled among themselves for power
What tore Egypt apart at the end of the Old Kingdom?
Why did Egyptians start to doubt the power of the pharaoh?
When climate change occurred, less rain fell in the African highlands, causing the Nile's flood waters to be too low; crops died because of this, and the threat of starvation hung over Egypt; because the pharaoh was seen as a god, people expected him to control the forces of nature, but he failed, which caused people to doubt his authority
Span of the Middle Kingdom
2080 - 1640 B.C.
What revived, grew, and flourished during the Middle Kingdom?
Farming revived, trade grew, and the arts flourished
What increased because of the new religious beliefs of the Middle Kingdom?
he importance of common people
Who now came to believe that they too had eternal souls like the pharaoh thus seeing them planning their burials?
Who's power (grandeur) decreased a little during the Middle Kingdom?
Which Asian nomads conquered ancient Egypt during the Middle Kingdom?
What 3 skills did the ancient Egyptians learn from the Hyksos?
How to make bronze (a harder metal than copper, which was used in the past for tools and weapons), how to wage war from horse-drawn chariots (shooting arrows from a powerful new kind of bow), and new techniques in the gentler arts of spinning and weaving
Which pharaoh, not queen, successfully drove out the Hyksos?
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