Chapter 23- Japan and Meiji Restoration
Terms in this set (...)
What was the difference about Japanese and Chinese's response to foreigners entering?
Japan adopted western institutions and cultures, while China was unsuccessful and the Qing dynasty ended
Who were the two main leaders of the Qin?
What year did the Qin reach its height?
Kangxi and Qianlong
Why did the Qing dynasty end?
They were humiliated and harassed by black ships and big guns of the Western powers, along with internal problems such as peasant unrest and official corruption
What was the British solution to the conflict between them and China?
Opium, which was more addictive than tea and was grown in NE India then shipped to china
Used for medicinal purposes
What did Lin Zexu do?
Assigned to stop the opium trade, yet was not successful and caused his downfall
What happened during the Opium War
Lasted for 3 years
Demonstrated superiority of British firepower and military tactics
Qing agreed to British terms after cutting off "tribute grain" from S to N china
What did the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842 state?
Chinese agreed to open 5 coastal ports to British trade, limit tariffs on British goods, grant rights to British living in China, and pay war costs
What did the Qing's failing to deal with economic problems lead to?
Led to a major peasant rebellion
Who led the Taiping Rebellion?
Hong Xiuquan, a failed examination candidate and Christian convert who wanted to be known as "Heavenly Kingdom of Supreme Peace"
What were other reasons for the peasant rebellion?
Increase in population led to decrease in status, official corruption led to increased taxes and decline in government
What did the Treaty of Tianjin say?
The Qing agreed to new concessions, legalizing opium trade, opening more ports for foreign trade, and giving Hong Kong to the British
What happened during the last two decades of the 19th century in China?
European penetration of China intensified
Why did the Qing go to war with Japan in 1894?
Because of Japanese incursions into the Korean peninsula, which threatened China's control over the area
Chinese were defeated
What was the response to Kang Youwei's reforms?
They were opposed by many conservatives, who thought it was too risky to copy the West
What affect did the Open Door policy have?
Reduced the imperial hysteria over access to the Chinese market
What was the Open Door policy?
Served to deflate fears in Britain, France, Germany and Russia that other powers would take advantage of China's weakness to dominate the China market
Who were the Boxers?
members of a secret society operating primarily in rural areas in northern China
What was the cause of the Boxer Rebellion?
A damaging drought and high levels of unemployment caused by foreign economic activity
What happened during the Boxer rebellion?
Boxers attacked foreign residents, and as punishment the foreigners destroyed temples in the capital suburbs, while China's government payed the governments involved
What did Sun Yat-Sen's three-stage process call for?
Military takeover and constitutional democracy
What was the Revolutionary Alliance based on?
Western liberal democratic principles aimed at the urban middle class
In what ways did the Western presence accelerate the presence of Chinese economy?
Introduced modern production, transport, and communication methods, export market, and integration of Chinese market in the global economy
What did Russian Marxist Vladimir Lenin believe about Western imperialism in China?
He believed that it hindered structural change and believed that if the west hadnt intervened, China would have found its own road to capitalism, etc.
What were the largest changes in daily life, and where did they occur?
occurred in coastal cities, where the educated were visibly affected by western culture and Confucian institutions declined
What changes occurred for women during the last half of the 19th century Qing era?
Women began seeking employement in factories, became active in activities,educational opportunities, and some fought in revolutions
Who was Qiu Jin?
A well-known female revolutionary who wrote a manifesto calling for woman's liberation and organized a revolt against the Manchu government, but was captured and executed
What happened in Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate?
Drove out foreign invaders and isolated the country from outside world (except Korea)
Who was the first to break Japanese isolation and how?
The US under Commodore Matthew C. Perry
Japan signed the Treaty of Kanagawa, which allowed the return of shipwrecked Americans, opening of 2 ports, and a US consulate on Japanese soil
Where was resistance to western contacts the strongest?
Two daimyo territories in the south, the Satsuma and Choshu
what happened as a result of the resistance?
The "Sat-Cho" alliance forced the shogun to end contact in the west
Where was the new capital located uder Meiji?
Edo (now Tokyo, or "Eastern Capital")
What were some reforms of the new Meiji leaders?
Undercut the power of the daimyo, abolish hereditary privileges, create a modern Western political system
What did the Charter Oath of 1868 say?
New leaders promised to create a new deliberative assembly within the framework of imperial rule
Who were key government positions given to?
Modernizing samurai (aka genro, or elder statesmen) from the Sat-Cho clique
What were the two most prominent political ideas that emerged?
Liberal Party- supreme authority in the parliament
Progressive Party-distribution of power between legislative and executive branches (victorious)
What was the core ideology of the state
Kokutai (national polity) which embodied the concept of uniqueness of Japanese system based on authority of the ruler
What was the Meiji system like?
Democratic yet despotic
Modern yet traditional
Allowed ruling class and new institutions
Intimate relationship between govt. and private buisness
What was Japan able to achieve in contrast to China?
Japan achieved results with minimal reliance on foreign capital
What were some of Japan's main industries during the Meiji era?
Tea, silk, weaponry, shipbuilding, and sake (Japanese rice wine)
What were the negative affects of the Meiji reforms on workers?
Workers abandoned their farms and fled to cities, where there was horrendous work conditions
What determined the lives of Japanese citizens?
Their membership in various social organizations such as the family, village and social class
What did the treaty of Shimonoseki say?
The Manchus were forced to recognize independence of Korea
Who was Adam Smith and what did he write?
Scottish professor who wrote The Wealth Of Nations (Bible of Capitalism)
What are the 3 main ideas of capitalism?
Labor is the true source of wealth
Leaving alone to do as one pleases
invisible hand-economy functions by natural laws
Who is Thomas Malthus and what did he write?
English economist who wrote An Essay On Population
Said that overpopulation and scarcity of food can be corrected by famines and wars-misery of mases is consequence
Who is David Ricardo and what did he found?
An English economist who founded the CLASSICAL SCHOOL of Economics
IRON LAW OF WAGES- wages are high, people have more kids and vice versa
Who is Jeremy Bentham and what did he found?
English philosopher and legal reformer who founded UTILITARIANISM
-goodness or badness of action depends on usefulness
-laws should be amde for greatest good of people
Who is John Stuart Mill?
English political philosopher who wrote ON liberty
-basic constitutional rights, general welfare sometimes requires govt. intervention
Who founded Socialism?
R. Owen, C. Fourier, H. St-Simon
Who founded Marxism/Communism?
Karl Marx and F. Engels
Class struggle, violent revolution, classless society, anti-capitalist
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