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learning chapter 6
Terms in this set (69)
Maria is studying in a kitchen where a noisy ceiling fan spins above her.
After an hour, Maria no longer pays attention to the fan. What explains her current response?
taste of chicken salad
Refusal to eat
Learning about a stimulus, such as a sight or a sound, in the external world
When our behavioral response to a stimulus decreases
When our behavioral response to a stimulus increases
learning the relationship between two pieces of information
when we learn that a stimulus predicts another stimulus
When we learn that a behavior leads to a certain outcome
When watching a movie, we feel sorrow when the main character is sad and experience joy when he or she triumphs over adversity.
What allows us to feel what the main character is experiencing?
what is the order of events for classical conditioning to occur?
The unconditioned stimulus occurs, eliciting an unconditioned response
A neutral stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
The neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus when it elicits a conditioned response.
A parent is trying to reinforce a baby to pick up a banner and wave it. The baby keeps picking up the banner and placing it in his mouth.
What is keeping the baby from learning to wave the banner?
Ben travels the same route between home and work. one day the road he takes is closed with no detour signs.
He easily makes his way back home, taking alternate roads that take him in the right direction.
how is Ben able to find his way back home?
how do we learn by watching how to do something
Which of the following will result in learning violent behavior through observational learning?
A child views a child bullying another.
A child sees an adult yelling angrily at someone.
A child watches a violent cartoon.
A child plays a violent video game.
When he sees teachers encouraging other children to wait in the cafeteria until the first bell rings, Ian follows them. What type of learning is Ian demonstrating?
The children at day care are not allowed to hit or hurt each other in any way. Pete is 3 years old, and he hits children who have toys that he wants.
What are the two best ways to change Pete's hitting behavior?
Praise Pete for asking to play with a toy (and not hitting), and then give him the toy.
Take the toy away from Pete when he gets it by hitting.
When the injured player is healed and plays her first match, she is surprised at how well she can serve. How did her tennis serve improve?
Jose has a food allergy to almonds and gets very ill if he eats any food containing almonds. While at a wedding, Jose starts to eat a piece of cake, but when he gets it close to his nose he smells the presence of almonds and does not eat it.
He later learns that there was almond extract used in the cake. Jose's ability to detect even the slightest presence of almonds is ______________ .
a prepared response
a classically conditioned response
Andrew learns how to prepare a fancy chicken meal during a cooking class with Chef Norman LeClair. Everyone in the class compliments Chef LeClair on his delicious chicken.
What type of learning has Andrew engaged in?
In which of the following cases will an adolescent be influenced to model smoking behavior?
A favorite famous musician smokes.
A respected parent smokes.
The cool kids at school smoke.
A mother is trying to toilet train her child.
Which of the following would cause better results based on the research on operant conditioning
When starting toilet training, reward the child with praise and something the child likes every time the child tries to use the toilet.
As toilet training continues, wait until the child goes half a day with dry pants before rewarding the child with praise and something the child likes.
Sally increases the amount of work she completes to receive more pay.
Peter's recess is taken away to discourage him from getting into fights with the other children.
Ted increases paying his bills on time to avoid a late fee.
Janet stops parking in handicapped spaces after she gets a big parking ticket.
Girls in a group home receive three tokens at the end of the day. They get one if they have completed their homework, one for completing chores, and one for cooperating with others. If they swear at or hit a staff member or one of the other girls, they lose a token. If they earn twelve or more tokens by Friday, they may trade them in to go out to the movies or out to eat.
What operant conditioning techniques are in use here?
a token economy
Annabel hasn't slept in two days. Her friends tell her they will buy her movie ticket if she goes out with them. Annabel chooses instead to go home and go to bed.
Why does Annabel make this choice?
Sleep is a primary reinforcer and Annabel was sleep deprived.
Sleep is a biological reinforcer and Annabel was sleep deprived.
Jackie has learned that when entering a yoga studio, a person sits down, closes his or her eyes, and remains silent.
After watching a video of a person juggling, Aaron is able to juggle.
Mike sees his friends cut through a neighbor's yard and get chased by their dog. He does not take this shortcut.
Janet learns how to do a headstand by watching her friend Anne.
The dog runs to the kitchen when he hears the clock chime at 5:00. The chimes are a signal for being fed.
Ben ignores the humming refrigerator.
Every time the child says "please," he gets what he wants. Now he says "please" 10 times in a row.
Peter cringes at the sound of rain tapping on the window.
Ivan Pavlov, a Russian____ repeatedly exposed dogs to the sight of food and, at the same time, the sound of a_____. At first the dog salivated because of the food; this reaction is known as____But after a while, the dogs began to salivate when they heard the sound, even if no food was present. this learned reaction is known as a _____, and the sound is called a
An unconditioned response
A Conditioned response
In contrast to behaviorism, recent learning theory has emphasized the role of________the conditioned stimulus helps an animal the unconditioned one. This relationship exists when the unconditioned stimulus is surprising and the conditioned stimulus comes -In such cases, the animal makes the connection between the stimuli especially -.
After another week, Bill becomes hungry when the bell rings to signify that it's lunchtime, before he even gets to the cafeteria or sees his food. Identify the stimuli and responses.
cafeteria first-order conditioned stimulus
lunch unconditioned stimulus
bell second-order conditioned stimulus
feels hungry conditioned response
In the late 1800s, Edward Thorndike observed cats placed in a specially designed box. When a cat pressed a lever ___the cat could leave through a door that opened—a____ state of affairs" for the cat, as Thorndike termed it. Over time, the cats learned to press the lever___ Learning a behavior by observing the consequences is called____conditioning. Thorndike called the tendency of behavior with desirable results to be repeated the
Law of effect
A blind man is walking to his favorite bakery. As a child, he smelled warm chocolate and then ate his mom's chocolate chip cookies. When the door to the bakery opens, he smells warm chocolate.
What does the smell of warm chocolate serve as, for the blind man to anticipate his favorite cookie
In 1919, the psychologist John Watson reported using a loud clanging sound as ___ stimulus to instill in a child named Albert a phobia of white rats and other white things. Shortly thereafter, a colleague of Watson's, used a child's favorite food as a stimulus to eliminate the child's fear of rabbits, a method of treating phobias called________More recently, the behavioral therapist____used this technique to develop a formal treatment called
mary cover jones
Test: A 5-year-old observes his father yelling at his older brother, who dropped and broke his dinner plate while removing it from the table. Thereafter, due to ______________, the 5-year-old is very cautious when removing his own plate.
A child has learned to avoid his father in the morning because his father is always grouchy at that time. Generally, being able to learn what stimuli predict pleasure or pain is consistent with Pavlov's belief that ______________.
conditioning is how we adapt to our environments
Alphonse watches the way his brother shovels the driveway in order to clear a spot for their grandmother's car. Alphonse then goes outside, takes another shovel, and starts shoveling the snow off of the walkway from the driveway to the front door. Alphonse uses the same technique as his brother. This demonstrates learning through
Dave observed that after returning from the vet, whenever he took his dog Smooches near his car, she began to shake and whine. Which of the following types of learned response was Smooches exhibiting?
David is taking a class about learning and motivation and he has to work in the laboratory two times a week teaching a rat to press a bar. The cage that he uses allows David to control the reinforcement and punishment that the rat receives. The name for this device used for investigating learning in animals is called a
Diane is taking a shower and when she hears her son flush the toilet she gets a rush of very hot water. This happens several times. One day when Diane is at a friend's house she hears someone flush a toilet and she twitches just a bit. Diane's twitching to the sound of a toilet flushing is an example of
a conditioned response.
Doris works in a factory where she is paid $10 for every toy she assembles. Given that she is on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement, which pattern of behavior can we generally expect from her?
She would likely be more productive than someone paid by the hour.
During the winter Olympics, a skier had a terrible fall. The observers all cringed. It was as if they had fallen themselves and were able to feel the pain of the fallen athlete. According to the biological basis of observational learning, the action of ______________ might underpin the observers' behavior.
Employing a process known as ______________, when Brice was first training his dog to do a "high five" he gave it a treat for any behavior, such as lifting its paw, that approximated the desired end-goal behavior of a "high five."
Gloria does a lot of weight training between soccer games. As she strengthens her muscles, she is able to run harder and faster during games. In the same ways, when synaptic connections between neurons become strengthened, the activity between them increases. This biological mechanism that underlies learning is called
long term potentiation
In a study on the biological bases of learning, lab rat A is given a drug that blocks dopamine activity in its brain. Thereafter, the rat is placed in an operant chamber where a lever-pressing task is shaped through positive reinforcement. We should expect that:
more difficulty learning the task than a normal rat
It is generally considered to be a bad idea to text while driving. A bit of knowledge such as this that can be passed from one person to another is known as a __________.
Jose is studying the different types of learning presented in the textbook chapter which one is simple stimulus
non- associative learning
What was the source of Albert's fear?
A white rat
Maurice is taking a class in which he is tested every two weeks. He decides to "cram" for the first test and receives a poor grade. According to the "Law of Effect," the probability of Maurice cramming before the second test has likely been ______________.
On the first day of Jake's summer job at the fish market, he was so overwhelmed by the smell that he was concerned about being able to stay on. What form of non-associative learning would lead us to predict that Jake will not have to quit due to the smell?
Othello likes going to the casino and playing the slot machine. He realizes that he will not win very often and that he never knows how many times he has to put money in and pull the level before he will win. Othello is being reinforced on a __________ schedule of reinforcement.
Research has shown that even infants can display empathy, or the ability to feel the emotions of another person. For example, when an infant sees another baby crying and soon begins crying herself. This type of learning is most likely a result of
activation of mirror neurons.
Stanley rewards his older son for cleaning up the garage by giving him $5. Later he is amused when his younger daughter, Lily, comes up to him and asks, "Daddy, can I clean the garage tomorrow?" Lily most likely learned about the benefits of cleaning the garage through __________ conditioning.
Teenager #1 returned home late from a date and his parents grounded him for a month. Teenager #2 also arrived home late, but his parents told him that if he is home on time on subsequent dates, he will get an increase in his allowance. Which teen should we expect to be on time on later dates?
The concept of biological ______________ can partially explain why 2-year-old Jason quickly acquired a fear of fire and did not show any fear of his mother's shoes.
When Ibrahim was six years old, he became terrified when the family's parrot flew at him and bit him on the nose. Since then, he's been afraid of all birds. Ibrahim's bird phobia illustrates the classical conditioning process of ______________.
When martin first drives his new car home he notices that there is a lot of road noise coming in through the windows. After a few weeks of driving, however, he barely notices that noice.
Your younger daughter watches your older daughter mow the lawn. Later, your younger daughter attempts to mow the lawn. According to the principles of ______________, your older daughter has acted as a ______________.
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