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Biology Chapter 36
Terms in this set (91)
always transports water and mineral from roots to shoots
transports photosynthetic products from sources to sinks (can be either shoots to roots or roots to shoots)
natural selection favored...
taller plants with flat appendages, multicellular branching roots, efficient transport
lateral roots establish
______ serve as conduits for water and nutrients and as supporting structures for leaves
the leafy portion of all the plants in a community, affects the productivity of each plant
_____ affects light absorption
In low-light conditions, ____ leaves capture more sunlight
In sunny conditions, ____ leaves are less damaged by sun and allow light to reach lower leaves
Soil contains resources mined by the ___ system
Root growth can...
adjust to local conditions
Roots are ___ competitive with other roots from the same plant than with roots from different plants
Roots are plants and fungi in the soil from mutualistic (symbiotic) association called
Mutualistic relationships with fungi helped plants...
Mycorrhizal fungi increase the ________ for plants absorbing water and minerals, especially phosphate
the _____ route, through cell walls and extracellular space (does not enter the cytosol) (nutrients and mineral through the cell wall)
the ____ route through the cytosol (does not enter cell walls) (through the cytosol gap is plasmodesmata)
the _____ route, across cell walls and through the cytosol (does both)
_____ permeability controls short-distance movement of substances
no energy required will happen without it
requires energy- ___ is used directly or indirectly to fuel active transport
requires the use of highly selective ___ proteins
____ is the diffusion of water into or out of a cell that is affected by solute concentration and pressure
water flows from regions of higher water potential to regions of
lower water potential
____ are transport proteins in the cell membrane that facilitate the passage of water
____ of the cell is an aqueous solution
water is the ____, and dissolved substances are solutes
_____- net diffusion of water across a membrane toward a lower water concentration (or toward a higher solute concentration)
___ solution has a higher solute concentration
___ solution has a lower solute concentration
when two solutions have the same osmotic concentration,the solutions are...
___ facilitate osmosis
Cell in a hypertonic solution ___ water, causing cell to shrivel up
Cell in hypotonic solution ___ water, causing cell to swell (creates osmotic pressure)
If membrane is strong enough, cell reaches counterbalance of osmotic pressure and will not...
burst because of the cell wall
animal cell, which don't have cell wall, must be in...
if a ____ (limp) cell is placed in an environment with a higher solute concentration, the cell lose water and undergo plasmolysis
___ occurs when the cell membrane shrinks and pulls away from the cell wall
____ ________ is the pressure exerted by the plasma membrane against the cell wall, and vice versa
if a flaccid cell is placed in a solution with a lower solute concentration, the cell will ____ water and become turgid
turgo loss in plants causes _______, which can be reversed when the plant is watered
Efficien long-distance transport of fluid requires ____ ____, the movement of fluid driven by pressure
water and solutes move together through tracheids and vessel elements of _____, and sieve-tube elements of _____
_______ _______ is possible because mature tracheids and vessel elements have no cytoplasm, and sieve-tube elements have few organelles in their cytoplasm
Most water and mineral absorption occurs near ____ ____, where root hairs are located and the epidermis is permeable to water
____ _____ account for much of the surface area of roots
after soil solution enters the roots, the extensive surface area of the cell membranes enhances ______ __ _____ and selected minerals
uptake of water
The __________ regulates and transports needed minerals from the soil into the xylem
Water and minerals now enter the tracheids and vessel elements of the
Diffusion and active transport are involved in this movement from symplast to ________ (in the endodermal cells)
_______ ___ (water and dissolved mineral) is transported from roots to leaves by bulk flow
The transport of xylem sap involves ___________ the evaporation of water from plant's surface
Transpired water is replaced as water travels up from the roots to the ______ and ______
Oxygen is more _________-_______ than hydrogen
______ molecule: a molecule with unequal distribution of electrons (2 ends of the molecule have opposite charges)
the single most oustanding chemical property of water is its ability to form _______ bonds
Hydrogen bonds are weak chemical associations that form between the partially negative O atoms and the partially positive H atoms of two ______ water molecule
_________- water molecules stick to other water molecules by hydrogen bonding
________- water molecules stick to other polar molecules by hydrogen bonding
water molecules are attracted to cellulose in xylem cell walls through....
adhesion of water molecules to xylem cell walls helps offset the force of....
water molecules are attracted to each other through....
cohesion makes it possible to pull a column of
leaves generally have large surface areas and high _______-__-_____ ratios
these characteristics increase photosynthesis, but also increase water loss through ______
________ cells help balance water conservation with gas exchange for photosynthesis
about 95% of the water a plant loses escapes through...
each stoma is flanked by a pair of guard cells which control the diameter of the soma by _________ ______
stomatal density is under genetic and _________ ______
when turgid, guard cells bow outward and the pore between them ___
when flaccid, guard cells become less bowed and the pore ____
Stomata open during the day and close at night to minimize _____ ___
stomatat opening at dawn is triggered by....
light, CO2 depletion, and internal clock in guard cells
all eukaryotic organisms have internal clocks, __________ _____ are 24-hour cycles
drought, high temp, and wind can cause stomata to _____ during the daytime
plants lose large amount of water by...
if the lost of water is not replaced by sufficient transport of water, the plant will....
lose water and wilt
transpiration also results in ______ _____, which can lower the temp of a leaf
if the temp is lower, enzymes involved in photosynthesis and other metabolic processes are less likely to become.....
some desert plants complete their life cycle during the...
others have fleshy stems that store _____ of leaf modificaion that reduce the rate of transpiration
some plants use a specialized form of ________ called crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) where stomatal gas exchange occurs only at night
the products of photosynthesis are transported through phloem by the process of.....
__________ ___ is an aqueous solution that is high n sucrose
a sugar _____ is an organ that is a net producer of sugar, such as mature leaves
a sugar ____ is an organ that is a net consumer or storer of sugar, such as a tuber or bulb
depending on the species, sugar may move by symplastic, or both symplastic and ________, pathways
in many plants, phloem loading requires _______ transport
proton pumping and cotransport of sucrose and H+ enable the cells to.....
sugar molecules diffuse form the phloem to ____ tissue (storage root cells)
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