S.P. Ch. 1
Terms in this set (30)
What is social psychology?
The study of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the real, imagined, or implied presence of others
What three spheres does social psychology encompass?
Social thinking, social influence, and social interactions
What is the difference between IV and DV?
IV is the variable that is hypothesized to be the causal variable (manipulated)
DV is the variable that is hypothesized to be caused by the IV
What is internal validity?
the extent to which an experiment allows for confident statements about cause and effect (that the IV caused the DV)
Name three threats to internal validity
Threat to internal validity provide alternative explanations for the findings. 1) confounding variables
2) demand characteristics
3) experimenter effect
What is external validity?
The extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized to other circumstances (people, situations, behaviors)
List three threats to external validity
Sample, experimental setting, and operationalizations of the IV and DV
How is internal validity increased?
By control and random assignment
How is external validity increased?
Realism (mundane and psychological realism), replication
Explain Cohen's "d" rule of thumb
d=.20 (small effect)
d=.50 (medium effect)
d=.80 (large effect)
What 3 components of the self does Baumeister emphasize?
1) reflexive consciousness: all the times you are aware of yourself
2) interpersonal self: the interface between your private experiences and the social world
3) executive function: self directs your actions, thoughts, feelings (taking action, initiative, and exerting self control)
What is self-awareness theory?
Heightened self-awareness can lead us to compare ourselves to a standard (our ideal self)--> influences how we currently feel about ourselves
If we fall short of our own standards for ourselves (ideal standards), what are the 2 things we do?
1) Behave in ways to reduce the discrepancy
2) Escape from self-awareness
Name the three effects that alter our Reflective Consciousness
1) Self-reference effect
2) Spotlight effect
3) Illusion of transparency
What is self-reference effect?
people tend to remember things better when they reflect it to the self/ people do a better job remembering things if they can connect it to themselves in some way
What is spotlight effect?
biased perceptions due to their self focus/ people tend to think that others are focusing more on them than they actually are (wearing the same outfit twice, class mates would not notice)
What is illusion of transparency?
people think that others can understand their emotions and feelings more than they actually can (for example, if you are nervous about a presentation people will usually not notice as much as you think they notice) an example is also when you are telling a lie, most people can not tell
What are the three different ways in which we seek info from other people about ourselves?
1) Self-assessment (wanting accurate knowledge about the self, actually the least important motive)
2) Self-verification: seeking out consistency from others about existing views of ourselves (sometimes we prefer negative feedback--low-selfesteem)
3) Self-enhancement: want positive feedback about ourselves (primary motive)
Name the 4 ways in which we protect or enhance self-esteem?
1) Better-than-average effect = people tend to think that they are better than the average person in many ways
2) False Uniqueness = tendency to underestimate the extent to which other people share our abilities and desirable behaviors
3) False Consensus = tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people share our opinions and undesirable behaviors
4) Self-serving attributions = tendency to attribute our success to internal (dispositional) factors, but our failures to external (situational) factors
What did Taylor & Brown (1988) argue about positive illusions?
that positive illusions are not only part of normal thought but also indicative of well-being/ promote higher self esteem, more initiative, more success, and more happiness/ depressed people do not believe in these positive illusions
What are some theories as to why we desire to improve/maintain our self-esteem?
Promotes adaptive behavior and psychological well-being
Signals dominance or status
Lowers existential anxiety
Explain the Sociometer Theory
Self-esteem is a gauge of the degree to which we are relationally valued.
People who have high self-esteem have had feedback that they are valued as a relationship partner (friend, family member, coworker, boyfriend). This says that self-esteem is not an inner, private evaluation of ourselves; self-esteem is actually very socially based affect by the interpersonal experiences with others around us. This means ultimately there is no fundamental need to have high self-esteem in and of itself, because it doesn't have any benefit. Relation value has always been very important for human survival/ we have developed this mechanism to see if we are doing well within a group and if we are liked by those around us (difference between life a death in the beginning of our time)
Compare trait self-esteem and state self-esteem
state self esteem fluctuates from day to day, trait self-esteem is the average
Explain interpersonal self
A tool for interacting with others
Two-way street: self influences how we relate to others, and others influence how we think about ourselves
Strategies we engage in when we are trying to get others to see us in a certain light: we want people to form a certain impression of us, so we change the way we talk, how we dress, or how we approach people (Job interview, first impressions)
A lot of interpersonal interaction is so we can get along and facilitate smooth social interactions with other, but these interactions also help our self-identity (wearing fancy clothes, talking intellectually, people think you're smart and you start to believe it too)
We have fluid versions of ourselves and match it to the social situation you are in (some people are more adaptable than others, and some people think of themselves as one true self, but these people may not have good social skills because it is expected of others to know what is appropriate in certain situations)
Explain executive function
This deals with two things: making decisions and exerting self-regulation
Self regulation: Any attempt of the self to change the self (overriding an impulse, holding back your tears, going to the gym when you don't want to)
(Includes standards, monitoring, and willpower) This theory says that we have an internal standard that we compare ourselves to, we do not observe ourselves neutrally (am I up to par with the norm) when you look in the mirror there is an evaluative component (religious beliefs, cultural normals that become internalized)
You monitor yourself and you compare it to the standard you hold, and you periodically adjust your action and view in order to conform more to the existing standard
As you change, you continue to compare yourself, and adjust and adjust
What is the self-regulation model according to Baumeister?
It is a strength model of self-regulation.
People have a limited self-control "resource"
Exerting any form of self-control diminishes the resource
Impairs subsequent efforts to exert self-control
Resource is eventually replenished
Briefly explain the experiment conducted by Baumeister
If self-regulation resembles an energy, then one act of self-regulation should expend that energy and deplete the available supply.
Participants who make themselves eat radishes instead of cookies will perform worse on a subsequent problem-solving task.
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