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Social Psych questions and final review

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Social psychology is primarily concerned with the ways in which
a. individuals think, feel, and behave with regard to others
when forming impressions of others
d. people differ in the particular traits they are likely to notice
the "hot" perspective in social psychology emphasizes ___, whereas the "cold: perspective emphasizes ___.
b. emotion, cognition
the desire for others to perceive us in the same way that we see ourselves is called
a. self-verification
according to the covariation principle, a situational attribution is MOST likely to result when consistence is ___ concensus is ___, and distinctiveness is ____.
d. high, high, high,
during a discussion with some friends just prior to a school election, Sandra states that she is cer... devastated for months if she isn't elected class president. this is an example of
b. the impact bias
according to Markus and Kitayama (1991) people from a collevtivist cultures are more likely than individualist cultures to
a. underestimate their contribution to a team effort.
the importance of nonverbal behavior when it comes to social perception can be seen by the fact that messages
b. are often misinterpreted, especially when the writer is trying to be funny or sarcastic
which of the following is NOT a way in which scripts influence social perception?
c. scripts allow people to discount their expectations
according to Gilbreth's two-step model of social perception, distraction should make the fundamental attribution error more likely to happen because it
d. doesn not interfere with the automatic process of making personal attributions, but does interfere with the more difficult process of making adjustments for situational factors.
the sutdy by Balcetis and Dunning (2006) in which participants thought that they were taking a taste-testing experiment showed that?
a. people tend to see what they want to see
Operational definitions:
a. define concepts in terms of how they will be measured.
in an experiment, the independent variable is ____ while the dependent variable is ____
d. manipulated; measured.
which of the following is an example of negative correlation?
c. the more alcohol you consume, the lower your GPA tends to be
April was born and raised in an eastern culture. she is more likely than people raised in Western cultures to
b.view relationships as an important part of her self-concept.
Research by David Dunnings suggests that one problem concerning self-assessment is that people tend to
a.overestimate their own skills, prospects for success, and opinion accuracy
the study of social perception addresses all of the following EXCEPT
c. the strategies people used to create a positive self-image
Kira hates her calculus class. As a social psychologist, which of these tactics would you recommend to help improve her mood during class?
c. Kira should force herself to smile throughout class
Herman remembers exactly what he was doing and where he was when he first heard about the terrorist attacks. Brown and Kulik (1977) would refer to this vivid image as
b. a flashbulb memory
according to the two factor theory of emotion, social context MOST directly affects
b. the cognitive interpretation of emotion
you are asked what percentage of psychology majors at your school are females. if you answer thinking of how many female psych majors come to mind quickly, you are relying on
c. availability heuristic
Dara loves to paint in her spare time. Painting is an enjoyable activity for her. Her desire is explained by
c. intrinsic motivation
a hypothesis is a(n)
c. explicit testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur.
while on an airplane, John completes a crossword puzzle in which interrupt, rude, and blunt were on there. after landing, John gets in line to speak to someone at the ticket counter, but the ticket agent does not see him because he is too busy talking with another employee. Research on priming suggests that John will
b. interrupt the ticket agent to ask his question.
Implicit personality theories suggest that if we know Yael is an extrovert, we would
d.assime she also possesses other traits related to extroversion
Social psychology differs from common sense in that
b. social psychologists relies on the scientific method to test its theories
a good operational definition of aggression might be
c. the number of times someone hits, kicks, or yells at a person or an object within a 1-hour period
higher levels of self-awareness often
a. result in a temporary reduction in self-esteem
which of the following is NOT identified by your textbook as an influencial factor in today's social psychology?
c.the split between "red" and "blue" states in the U.S.
Colin and Erin are waiting to meet with their caterer so that they can discuss the menu for their wedding. the caterer is 30 min late and still hasn't arrived. Colin suggests that the caterer is probably delayed because of traffic. Erin suggests that the caterer is prob disorganized and unreliable. Colin is making a(n) ___attribution, whereas Erin is making a(n) ___ attribution.
d. situational, personal
You hear tiger woods doing a radio commercial for Buick. even though you know that Woods did not write the commercial himself, was paid to provide the voice-over for the commercial, and prob does not drive a Buick in real life, you still think at some level, at least, Woods must think highly of Buicks. This is an example of
d. fundamental attribution error
Vera thinks that having pets increases psychological functioning and well-being. to test this, one group of randomly selected nursing home residents is each given a pet while the second group is not. over two months their overall level of psychological functioning is evaluated on a daily basis, what is the independent variable in this study?
c. whether or not the residents received a pet
Marion is a sprinter on her high school track team. According to the social comparison theory, Marion is most likely to look to which of the following groups to assess how fast a sprinter she is?
a. other female high school track athletes
in preparation for an interview, Martin Seligman described the state of psychology today in all of the following ways EXCEPT
d. bad
the tendency to think that most victims of Hurricane Katrina were irresponsible and naive for not evacuating their homes before the storm hit is MOST likely to result from which of the following tendencies?
a. belief in a Just world
The ABC's of the self refer to affect, behavior, and cognition. which of these three concepts is most relevant for the idea of self-esteem?
a. affect
according to self-discrepancy theory, experiencing negative emotions, such as anxiety or depression, is often caused by
a.the degree of incongruity among the actual, ought, and ideal selves
Brittney wonders if she would have been happier has she married Justin instead of Kebin. this illustrates
a.counterfactual thinking
According to Warneken and Tomasello (2008), how can moms best encourage their young toddlers to help them out?
a. give no reward at all
one of the reasons that we are NOT very successful at detecting deception is because
b. we fail to attend to the nonverbal cues that actually signal deception
research suggests that people seem to commit the fundamental attribution error
a. even when they are aware of the situational constraints of behavior
Justin falls asleep during a movie that he has been waiting all week to see. if he relies on self-perception to determine his feelings about the movie, he will most likely decide that
b. he found the movie to be quite boring
when ___is low, it is difficult for the perceiver to attribute behavior to either person or the stimulus; instead the best than can be said is that the behavior was caused by transient circumstances.
d. consistency
one way of defending our belief in a just world when we observe a victim suffering is to
b. disparage the victim
abigail loves her social psych class and thinks that most of the other students in the class love it as well..is in the same class and absolutely hates it. Lily is thoroughly convinced that most of the other students also dislike it. these distorted perceptions are an example of
a. the false-concensus effect
the process by which we seek to control or alter our thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and urges is called
c. self-regulation
beliefs about the self-concept that guide the processing of self-relevant information are called
d. self schemas
causation cannot be inferred from correlatonal studies because
b. they do not involve the manipulation of variables
because of his research on practical issues, such as the research he conducted in the 1940's concerning promotion of more economical and nutritous eating habits, Kurt Lewin could be considered one of the founders of
d. applied social psychology
Todd considered to have a baby face, and Martin, viewed as having more mature features, are both being interviewed for the same position in a bank. which og the following is the most probable outcome?
a. because of his more mature features, Martin will be recommended for the position
the process of reflecting our own inner thoughts and feelings in order to gain self-knowledge is called
b. introspection
Impact bias in affective forecasting refers to the phenomenon in which
d.people tend to overestimate the strenght and duration of their emotional reactions to events.
physical appearance is extremely important to Adirana. when enters a beauty contest, she beats all but one of the other contestents and finishes in second place. however, the one contestant that beats her is her neighbor and arch-rival, Lisa. Research by Tesler (1988) suggests that adriana
a. will avoid future contact with Lisa in order to avoid further threats to her self-esteem
a confirmation bias refers to people's tendency to
c.interpret, seek, and create information in ways that support existing beliefs.
Social psychologists do not generally
c.pay more attention to group behavior than the behavior of individuals within groups
Schachter (1959) examined the preferences of participants who were expecting to receive a series of painful electric shocks. he found that these participants preferred to wait in a room
c.with participants who were also expecting shocks
on his first day of class, professor Saccamano thinks he is nervous because is bp is up and his hands are shaking. he continues to feel this way, however, before every class meeting of the semester, and eventually realized that his arousal is due to the five flights of stairs he must climb up to the classroom. which theory best explains his misattribution?
b. two-factor theory of emotion
when comparing social psychology to sociology, a major difference is the
d.focus on the individual or the group
Vernell is being interviewed for a job. thought it isnt really true, the interviewer suspects that vernell is incompetent. Because the interviewer doesnt expect much from Vernell, he sits far away from her during the interview, interrupts her frequently, and seems distracted when she speaks. as a result, Vernell becomes...starts to stutter, and loses her train of thought several times. the interviewer's final impression is that Vernell is as he suspected, incompetent. this impression is most likely the result of
a. a self-fulfilling prophecy
priming refers to the tendency
b. for recently used concepts to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation of new information
the two factor theory of emotion proposes that emotional experience
b.is based on physiological arousal and a cognitive label for that arousal
social psychology differs from history and philosophy in its
d. attention to the scientific method
as social perceivers, people's impressions of others are
d.influenced by the physical appearance of a person
which of the following statements concerning correlational research is true?
d. in correlational research, variables are measured, but not manipulated
cross-cultural studies by Carl Faulk, and colleagues (2009), in which self-rating by canadian and japanese participants were compared, indicated that
d. canadian participants endorsed more positive traits about the self that did japanese participants
alex changes his behavior in response to self-presentation concerns and various situations, exhibiting a high of
d. self-monitoring
whichi historical event sparked the great interest in and gave shape to the field of social psychology?
b. the Nazi holocasuy during WWII
which of the following statements is not consistent with Muraven and Baumeister's (2000) theory of self-control?
d.self-control is a limited inner resource that can be temporarily depleted
people's spontaneous self-descriptions are most likely to include
c.characteristics that set them apart from others in the immediate vicinity
Cross-cultural research indicates that Americans are more likely than Asains to
d.perceive themselves as unique
one of the many advantages of correlational research is that
d. it allows researchers to study variables that cannot be manipulated in the lab
Jerry makes frequent eye contact with the person to whom he is talking. this is most likely to elicit
b. a positive impression if the person to whom Jerry is talking is a friend, and a negative impression if this person is an enemy
according to both videp clips shown in class, the happiest people are people who
a. have more social connections
"founders of social psych" Norman Triplett and Max Ringleman both did research examining
a. the impact of the presenxe of others on performance