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Biology final exam review

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T or F: The earliest known amphibian fossil is that of an extinct amphibian called Icthyostega
True
T or F: In most amphibians, fertilization takes place externally
True
T or F: Caecilians are tropical amphibians with four legs and a tail
False
T or F: Waterproof skin is a reptilian adaptation to life on land
True
T or F: In amphibians, reproductive cells and wastes exit the body through the cloacal opening
True
T or F: Frog eggs must be laid in a wet or moist environment
True
T or F: Some frog larvae undergo metamorphosis in the stomach of their mother
True
The word amphibian is derived from Greek words meaning: a) "Fishlike" b)"Froglike" c)"Double Life" d) "First lunged"
c) "Double life"
The earliest known land vertebrate a) was a coelacanth, b) was an amphibian, c) lacked bones in its legs, d) was now-extinct reptile
b) was an amphibian
In amphibians, gases are exchanged through lung breathing and through the a) heart, b) air bladder, c) lateral line system, d) skin
d) skin
Amphibians without tails are classifies in the order a) Apoda, b) Anura, c) Urodela, d) Hydrodela
b) Anura
Newts and salamanders are amphibians of the order a) Apoda, b) Anura, c) Urodela, d) Gymnophiona
c) Urodela
Amphibians that have slender bodies and no limbs are classified as a) anurans, b) caecilians, c) salamanders, d) newts
b) caecilians
Amphibians must have thin, moist skin a) to allow easier gas exchange, b) because thin, moist skin cannot be eaten by a predator, c) so that they can slip easily into tight places, d) to resist water loss
a) to allow easier gas exchange
Some type of skeletal support a) exists in all animals, whether they are aquatic or terrestrial, b) was necessary for animals to leave aquatic environments, c) is present primarily in land vertebrates, d) evolved first in reptiles
b) was necessary for animals to leave aquatic envirnments
Which of the following characteristics of the skeletons of frogs are adaptations for jumping? a) forelimbs attached to a pectoral girdle and hindlimbs attached to a pelvic girdle, b) fusion of bones of the hind limbs and of the vertebral column, c) cervical vertebrae, d) bony vertebral column
b) fusion of bones of the hind limbs and of the vertebral column
The amphibian heart a) pumps only deoxygenated blood, b) has four chambers, c) pumps only oxygenated blood, d) pumps both deoxygenated and oxygenated blood
d) pumps both deoxygenated and oxygenated blood
The amount of oxygen a lung can absorb depends primarily on a) its thickness, b) its position in the body of an animal, c) its internal surface area, d) the diameter of the bronchioles in the lung
c) its internal surface area
Frogs breathe by a) changing the volume and pressure in their chest cavity, b) allowing air currents they encounter as they move to inflate their lungs, c) changing the volume and pressure of air in their mouth, d) expanding and contracting the muscles of the rib cage
c) changing the volume and pressure of air in their mouth
Adult frogs, like other amphibians, are a) herbivores, b) omnivores, c) parasites, d) carnivores
d) carnivores
Which of the following senses is not more developed in amphibians than in bony fishes? a) lateral line system, b) vision, c) smell, d) hearing
a) lateral line system
Although adapted to land, toads must have access to a watery environment in order to a) obtain food and oxygen, b) excrete wastes, c) reproduce, d) all of the above
c) reproduce
Amphibians must reproduce in water or moist places because their eggs a) are fertilized externally, b) have a jelly-like coating that is freely permeable to water, c) will dry out if removed from moisture, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The series of changes in the life cycle of a frog is called a) amniocentesis, b) metamorphosis, c) evolution, d) synapsis
b) metamorphosis
During metamorphosis in frogs, a) lungs replace gills, b) limbs develop, c) the tail disappears, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Pulmonary veins carry blood from the a) body to the heart, b) heart to the lungs, c) lungs to the heart, d) heart to the body
c) lungs to the heart
Which of the following is not a method used by at least some frogs for caring for fertilized eggs as they develop? a) gastric-brooding, b) vocal-chord brooding, c) sitting on eggs (nest-brooding), d) mouth-brooding
d) mouth-brooding
Most amphibians exist as a) aquatic larvae that breathe with gills and as terrestrial adults that breathe using lungs and skin, b) aquatic larvae that breathe using lungs and skin and as terrestrial adults that breathe with gills, c) terrestrial larvae that breathe with gills and as aquatic adults that breathe using lungs and skin, d) terrestrial larvae that breathe with gills and lungs and as aquatic adults that breathe using skin
a) aquatic larvae that breathe with gills and as terrestrial adults that breathe using lungs and skin
The first amphibian probably resembled a) jawless fishes, like the lamprey, b) cartilaginous fishes, like the skate, c) lobe-finned fishes, like the coelacanth, d) rey-finned fishes, like the salmon
c) lobe-finned fishes like the coelacanth
Adaptations that helped early amphibians live on land included all of the following EXCEPT a) strong limb bones, b) dry, scaly, skin c) lungs and breathing tubes, d) a bony rib cage
b) dry, scaly skin
The mimicry practiced by some species of nontoxic amphibians would be most effective against predators that hunt by sensing the a) smell of their prey, b) color of their prey, c) sounds made by their prey, d) heat released by their prey
b) color of their prey
In a frog, the cavity through which digestive wastes, urine, and eggs or sperm leave the body is the a) cloaca, b) colon, c) gallbladder, d) pancreas
a) cloaca
A frog's tympanic membranes would be most useful for a) enabling the frog to jump long distances, b) filtering wastes from the frog's blood, c) listening to the mating calls of other frogs, d) keeping the frog's eyes from drying out on land
c) listening to the mating calls of other frogs
Amphibians receive sound waves in their ___, which then causes vibrations that transfer to the ___, which transfers movement to the ___ and finally to the ___.
tympanic membrane, columella, inner ear, brain
What structure allows an amphibian the ability to see underwater without damaging its eyes?
nictating membrane
T or F: Lobe-finned fishes were the ancestors of amphibians
True
T or F: A land animal needs stronger bones and muscles than an aquatic animal does because of the increased pull of gravity on terrestrial body structures
True
T or F: A fish's gills would collapse on land
True
T or F: Since they live in salt water, marine fishes do not have a problem maintaining the proper balance of water and salt in their body
False
T or F: The first fishes that appeared in the ancient seas were jaw less and toothless
True
T or F: Sharks have good vision and can detect electromagnetic fields coming from prey animals
True
T or F: Sharks and rays have skeletons of bone
False
T or F: Bony fishes have a swim bladder
True
T or F: Members of the class Osteichthyes have skeletons of cartilage
False
T or F: In fishes, oxygenated blood passes from the gills to the heart and then to the rest of the body
False
Which of the following is not found in all vertebrates? a) jaws, b) cranium, c) endoskeleton, d) vertebral column
a) jaws
The first stage in the evolution of the animal body occurred a) over millions of years in the sea, b) relatively recently, once organisms emerged from the sea, c) among free-floating algae in ancient seas, d) on dry land, several hundred million years ago
a) over millions of years in the sea
Jaws probably evolved from the a) pectoral fins of jawless fishes, b) gills slits of sharks and rays, c) paired pelvic fins of jawless fishes, d) gill arches of jawless fishes
d) gill arches of jawless fishes
The concentration of the urine an animal produces depends primarily on a) the time of the year, b) the size of the organism, c) the animal's environment, d) the diet of the organism
c) the animal's environment
The structure of a fish that filters dissolved chemical wastes from the blood is a(n) a) lung, b) heart, c) amnion, d) kidney
d) kidney
The urinary bladder and kidneys make up the __ of a fish, a) respiratory system, b) digestive system, c) excretory system, d) circulatory system
c) excretory system
Substances that are useful to the body, but filtered out of the blood by kidneys a) are lost and must be constantly replaced through the animal's diet, b) would prove poisonous if allowed to remain in the blood, c) are converted to feces to be disposed of, d) are selectively reabsorbed back into the blood
d) are selectively reabsorbed back into the blood
Lampreys and hagfishes have a) jaws, b) paired fins, c) a rigid skeleton, d) a notochord through all stages of their life cycle
d) a notochord through all stages of their life cycle
The word agnatha means a) "bony fishes", b) "without jaws", c) "without vertebral column", d) "early fish"
b) "without jaws"
The first vertebrates a) were jawless fishes, b) had thick, bony plates that covered their bodies, c) had no well-developed vertebral column, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The living agnathans are the a) lampreys and sharks, b) sharks and rays, c) hagfishes and coelacanths, d) lampreys and hagfishes
d) lampreys and hagfishes
The ion concentration in the body of a shark a) changes constantly as the shark swims at different depths, b) is higher than that in the surrounding sea water, c) is lower than that in the surrounding sea water, d) is the same as that in the surrounding sea water
d) is the same as that in the surrounding sea water
The word chondrichthyes means a) bony fish, b) gilled fish, c) big fish, d) cartilage fish
d) cartilage fish
Cartilaginous fishes have all the following except a) spiracles, b) internal fertilization, c) swim bladder, d) gill slits
c) swim bladder
Which of the following senses is not used by sharks to detect prey? a) olfaction, b) vision, c) lateral-line system, d) touch
d) touch
The eggs of sharks a) all develop externally, b) are fertilized internally, c) are fertilized externally, d) have shells like those of chicken eggs
b) are fertilized internally
Members of the class Osteichthyes a) have skeletons made of bone, b) do not have jaws, c) include the rays and skates, d) all of the above
a) have skeletons made of bone
Lungfishes a) may live in water with a low oxygen content, b) are lobe-finned fishes, c) can breathe air, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The coelacanth is a a) lungfish, b) cartilaginous fish, c) ray-finned fish, d) lobe-finned fish
d) lobe-finned fish
A collection chamber that reduces the resistance of blood flow into the heart of a fish is called the a) sinus venosus, b) ventricle, c) conus arteriosus, d) atrium
a) sinus venosus
The countercurrent flow of water and blood found in the gills of fishes a) allows blood and water to flow in the same direction, b) ensures that oxygen diffuses into the blood over the whole length of the blood vessels in the gills, c) results in an uneven supply of oxygen reaching the blood vessels in the gills, d) hampers the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the water
b) ensures that oxygen diffuses into the blood over the whole length of the blood vessels in the gills
The operculum a) is part of the skeletal system, b) is an adaptation for rapid swimming, c) covers the gill chamber, d) none of the above
c) covers the gill chamber
The swim bladder a) stores air for breathing, b) contains antibodies, c) is found in all amphibians, d) allows fishes to become more buoyant
d) allows fishes to become more buoyant
External fertilization is not common on land because a) both sperm and egg run the risk of drying out, b) sexual reproduction takes place more readily in rivers, lakes and oceans, c) most of Earth's surface area is covered by water, d) all of the above
a) both the sperm and egg run the risk of dying out
In most bony fishes a) internal fertilization takes place, b) external fertilization takes place, c) internal development takes place, d) all of the above
b) external fertilization takes place
In chordates, the long supporting rod that runs through the body is called the a) nerve cord, b) notochord, c) pharyngeal pouch, d) nerve cord
b) notochord
Which of these chordate characteristics exists as paired structures? a) tail, b) notochord, c) pharyngeal pouch, d) nerve cord
c) pharyngeal pouch
In some chordates, pharyngeal pouches develop into slits that develop into a) fins, b) gills, c) blood vessels, d) vertebrae
b) notochord
A vertebrate is any chordate that has a a) backbone, b) notochord, c) hollow nerve cord, d) tail that extends beyond the anus
a) backbone
Blood flows through the body of a fish in a a) single-loop open circulatory system, b) single-loop closed circulatory system, c) double-loop open circulatory system, d) double-loop closed circulatory system
b) single-loop closed circulatory system
Most fishes get rid of nitrogenous wastes by a) taking in ammonia through the gills and eliminating it from the kidneys, b) taking in water through the kidneys and eliminating ammonia from the gills, c) eliminating ammonia from the gills and from the kidneys, d) eliminating urine from the gills and ammonia from the kidneys
c) eliminating ammonia from the gills and from the kidneys
If a fish's olfactory bulbs were damaged, the fish probably would be unable to a) coordinate its body movements, b) recognize substances by their smell, c) discriminate between light and dark objects, d) detect vibrations in the water
b) recognize substances by their smell
Suppose a fish is swimming upstream in total darkness. Which of the following would be most likely to help the fish sense aquatic predators that approach it from behind? a) its well-developed eyes, b) its chemoreceptors, c) its lateral line system, d) its bulbus arteriosus
c) its lateral line system
The eggs of many species of sharks a) are released from the mother's body before fertilization, b) are released from the mother's body after fertilization, c) are released from the mother's body after developing into young embryos, d) hatch inside the mother's body, where the young sharks continue to grow
d) hatch inside the mother's body, where the young sharks continue to grow
The 2 major groups of bony fishes are the lobe-finned fishes and the a) lungfishes, b) ray-finned fishes, c) coelacanths, d) placoderms
b) ray-finned fishes
The part of a fish's brain that processes olfactory information is the ___, which controls voluntary movements in most other vertebrates.
cerebrum
The process of ___ is responsible for the exchange of gases across respiratory membranes.
diffusion
Marine bony fishes lose water continuously by ___ to the saltier water in which they swim.
osmosis
In fishes and amphibians, gills develop from slits that form in the ___.
pharyngeal pouches
Adult salmon can distinguish their home stream from other streams by using their sense of ___.
smell
T or F: Arthropods evolved from insects
False
T or F: Arthropods have an exoskeleton made of chitin
True
T or F: The outer layer of the arthropod exoskeleton is shed during molting, but products of the breakdown of the exoskeleton inner layer are used to make a new exoskeleton
True
T or F: Most crustaceans are aquatic
True
T or F: Crustaceans range in size from microscopic forms to huge lobsters
True
T or F: Despite the high concentrations often found in the sea, copepods play a very small role in the ocean's food web
False
T or F: The barnacle is an example of a crustacean that is sessile as an adult
True
T or F: The swimmerets of lobsters and crayfish are attached to their thorax
False
T or F: The anatomy of spiders and insects are essentially identical
False
T or F: Except for the number of legs, millipedes and centipedes are basically the same in structure and diet
False
The appendages of arthropods a) may serve as walking legs, b) may be modifies into antennae, c) may be modifies into large pincers, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The exoskeleton of arthropods and the skin of vertebrates both a) are waterproof coatings of their bodies, b) are necessary for sensing sound vibration, c) have joints that allow movement to occur, d) provide physical support to the body
a) are waterproof coatings of the bodies
Jointed appendages of arthropods may a) become specialized for particular functions, b) function in locomotion, c) function in feeding, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Characteristic of the arthropods include a) segmentation, b) a chitinous exoskeleton, c) jointed appendages, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Arthropods have a hard outer skeleton and a) a backbone, b) hair, c) a four-chambered heart, d) jointed appendages
d) jointed appendages
Molting in arthropods occurs in response to a) enzyme action, b) hormonal action, c) pressure, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
In what way are lobsters similar to spiders? a) they have jointed appendages, b) they have exoskeletons, c) they have segmented bodies, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Crabs, lobsters, shrimp and barnacles are members of the subphylum a) diptera, b) centipeda, c) crustacea, d) arachnida
c) crustacea
If all copepods died, a) bubonic plague would cease to be a problem, b) predators that depend on them would quickly find substitute food sources in the sea and fresh water, c) our sources of food from the ocean would disappear, d) nothing would change
c) our sources of food from the ocean would disappear
Spiders, scorpions and mites belong to the subphylum a) Arthropoda, b) Crustacea, c) Chordata, d) Chelicerata
d) Chelicerata
Spiders, scorpions and ticks belong to the class a) Isoptera, b) Crustacea, c) Chordata, d) Arachnida
d) Arachnida
Spiders use silk to a) trap their prey, b) line their nets, c) encase captured prey, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The small nozzle-like structures used by spiders to produce silk are called a) mouthparts, b) pedipalps, c) spinnerets, d) silk nozzles
c) spinnerets
Millipedes feed mainly on a) decayed plants, b) other insects, c) crustaceans, d) wood products
a) decayed plants
Centipedes a) have one pair of legs per segments and eat decaying matter, b) have two pairs of legs per segment and are predators, c) have two pairs of legs per segment and eat decaying matter, d) have one pair of legs per segment and are predators
d) have one pair of legs per segment and are predators
What does molting enable arthropods to do? a) to breathe, b) to reproduce, c) to grow, d) to eat
c) to grow
An example of a chelicerate is a a) lobster, b) centipede, c) crayfish, d) spider
d) spider
Insects are classified as a) crustaceans, b) arachnids, c) uniramians, d) chelicerates
c) uniramians
The easiest way to tell whether an arthropod is an insect or a spider is to a) observe its color, b) count its legs, c) count its swimmerets, d) measure the length of its body
b) count its legs
The respiratory organ in terrestrial chelicerates is the a) chelicera, b) book lung, c) book gill, d) pedipalp
b) book lung
How many pairs of legs are there on most body segments of a centipede? a) one, b) two, c) five, d) six
a) one
Crustaceans breathe with the aid of ___
gills
Scorpions are distinguished from other arthropods by the presence of a ___ on the abdomen
stinger
T or F: The majority of animal species are classified as invertebrates
True
T or F: All chordates are classified as vertebrates
False
T or F: All animal cells lack cell walls
True
T or F: A tissue is a group of dissimilar cells that are organized into a functional unit
False
T or F: The development of a particular animal's body plan depends on the animal's environment, rather than on the genetic information it carries
False
T or F: Although animal life is through to have evolved originally in the sea, the vast majority of animals today are terrestrial
False
T or F: On an upright, bipedal animal such as a human, the ventral surface is the front side of the body and the dorsal surface is the back side of the body
True
T or F: Radially symmetric animals have no anterior end and no posterior end, but do have a bottom and a top
True
T or F: An advantage of cephalization is that an animal enters its environment head first, and therefore can immediately sense important stimuli
True
T or F: The fluid in the body cavity of an animal acts as a medium of transport for nutrients and wastes
True
T or F: Segmentation occurs in the bodies of annelids and arthropods but is not present in chordates
False
T or F: An advantage of a long digestive tract is that it provides a large surface area over which nutrients can be absorbed
True
T or F: At the start of gastrulation, the embryo is cup-shaped and has 3 distinct germ layers
False
All the members of the kingdom Animalia a) are heterotrophs, b) are multicellular, c) have cells without cell walls, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Specialized cells a) can carry out their tasks more effectively than cells that must do many tasks, b) are found only in chordates and echinoderms, c) always operate independently of all other cells, d) all of the above
a) can carry out their tasks more effectively than cells that must do many tasks
A group of similar cells organized into a functional unit is called a) a nervous system, b) specialized cells, c) a tissue, d) an organ
c) a tissue
Animals probably evolved from a) plants, b) photosynthetic protists, c) heterotrophic protists, d) none of the above
c) heterotrophic protists
Modern organisms that are thought to resemble the earliest animals are a) plants, b) colonial protists, c) unicellular protozoans, d) bacteria
b) colonial protists
Most animals have a head that is located at the ___ end of their body and a tail that is located at the ___ end of their body. a) ventral;dorsal, b) dorsal; ventral, c) anterior; posterior, d) posterior; anterior
c) anterior; posterior
Cephalization a) is a feature of most invertebrates, including the sponges, b) is characterized by the concentration of sensory organs in the anterior end, c) occurs in marine protozoa, d) results when the brain does not develop properly
b) is characterized by the concentration of sensory organs in the anterior end
Which of the following is found in vertebrates but not in invertebrates? a) dorsal nerve cord, b) coelom, c) 3 germ layers, d) bilateral symmetry
a) dorsal nerve cord
A characteristic shared by all chordates at some stage of their development is a) a dorsal holllow nerve cord, b) a notochord, c) pharyngeal pouches, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Which of the following is not a vertebrate adaptation to life on land? a) lungs, b) internal fertilization, c) endoskeleton, d) brain
d) brain
In sponges, digestion occurs in a) a gut, b) individual cells, c) a central cavity with a single opening, d) outside of the animal's body
b) individual cells
During which of the following stages of animal development are the germ layers formed? a) fertilization, b) cleavage, c) gastrulation, d) organ formation
c) gastrulation
The acoelomate body type is exemplified by a) flatworms, b) roundworms, c) mollusks, d) annelids
d) annelids
Which of the following is an incorrect match? a) ectoderm-nervous system, b) mesoderm-skeletal system, c) endoderm-muscular system, d) endoderm-digestive system
c) endoderm-muscular system
Which of the following animals is a deuterostome? a) annelid, b) arthropod, c) mollusk, d) chordate
d) chordate
The backbone is a characteristic of a) worms, b) all chordates, c) vertebrates only, d) reptiles only
c) vertebrates only
In a protostome, the blastopore becomes a(an) a) mouth, b) anus, c) zygote, d) blastula
a) mouth
A body cavity that forms between the germ layers is called a (an) a) coelom, b) blastopore, c) mesoderm, d) ectoderm
a) coelom
The distinguishing feature of a closed circulatory system is that a) it does not include a heart, b) blood is contained within vessels that extend throughout the body, c) blood is kept at low pressure, d) blood is circulated less efficiently than in an open circulatory system
d) blood is circulated less efficiently than in an open circulatory system
Which of the following is a function of an excretory system? a) eliminating nitrogenous wastes from the body, b) exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide with the environment, c) gathering and processing information from the environment, d) obtaining and digesting food
a) eliminating nitrogenous wastes from the body
An endoskeleton is a a) shell of a mollusk, b) fluid-filled body cavity that supports the muscles, c) structural support located inside the body, d) hard body covering made of chitin
c) structural support located inside the body
Which statement refers to sexual reproduction? a) all offspring are genetically identical to the parent, b) offspring are produced from the fusion of male and female gametes, c) an organism breaks into pieces that grow into new individuals, d) new individuals are produced from outgrowths of the parent's body wall
b) offspring are produced from the fusion of male and female gametes
Which of the following is found only in animals? a) the ability to move, b) sexual reproduction, c) muscle tissues and nervous tissue, d) heterotrophy
b) sexual reproduction
As an animal develops, the ectoderm becomes the a) heart, b) tissues that lines the gut, c) skin and nervous system, d) muscle tissue
c) skin and nervous system
The opening in the blastula is known as the ___
blastopore
If an invertebrate has gills, it most likely lives in a (an) ___ envirnment
aquatic/water
The distinguishing feature of vertebrates is the ___
backbone
Multicellularity allows for the ___ of different cells for different tasks
specialization
The type of coelom formation in which cells at the dorsal part of the archenteron begin dividing rapidly and roll inward is called ___
entercoelom
T or F: the kingdom Protista contains the eukaryotes that are not plants, animals or fungi
True
T or F: Amoebas move by means of pseudopodia
True
T or F: Protists cause amoebic dysentery, giardiasis, and sleeping sickness
True
T or F: Members of the phyla Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta are commonly referred to as seaweeds
True
T or F: Adverse environmental conditions induce individual cellular slime molds to aggregate, forming a colonial organism
True
T or F: All fungi except yeasts have bodies composed of filaments
True
T or F: All fungi are heterotrophic
True
T or F: Fungi obtain nutrients through photosynthesis
False
T or F: Some fungi aid in the transfer of minerals from the soil to the roots of plants
True
T or F: Ringworm is cause by a small wormlike animal
False
Which of the following types of protozoa is a primary source of energy for other organisms living in the same ecosystem? a) parasitic protozoa, b) zooplankton, c) cyst-forming protozoa, d) soil-inhabiting protozoa
b) zooplankton
A resistant structure formed by some protozoa that enables them to survive harsh environmental conditions is a(n) a) eyespot, b) cyst, c) food vacuole, d) pseudopod
b) cyst
The process in which two Paramecia come together after meiosis to exchange parts of their genetic material is called a) mitosis, b) replication, c) pollination, d) conjugation
d) conjugation
A current problem in the treatment of malaria is that Plasmodium parasites a) have evolved resistance to quinine and its derivatives, b) can now be transmitted through sexual contact, c) have developed a resistance to the malaria vaccine, d) all of the above
a) have evolved resistance to quinine and its derivatives
Giardiasis is a disease that is spread a) by direct person-to-person contact, b) through the air, c) through the water, d) by the Anopheles mosquito
c) through the water
Sleeping sickness is spread by a) tsetse flies, b) mosquitoes, c) contaminated food, d) all of the above
a) tsetse flies
Which of the following human diseases caused by protists? a) amoebic dysentery, b) toxoplasmosis, c) leishmaniasis, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The symptom of malaria a) include anemia and sweating, b) follow a cycle, c) include sever chills and fever, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Algae are a) sometimes heterotrophic, b) always microscopic in size, c) found in both fresh water and salt water, d) found only in fresh water
c) found in both fresh water and salt water
In which of the following ways do algae differ from most other protists? a) all algae are unicellular and photosynthetic, b) algae are photosynthetic and either unicellular or multicellular, c) all algae are unicellular and heterotrophic, d) all algae are multicellular and heterotrophic
b) algae are photosynthetic and either unicellular or multicellular
Green algae and plants a) both have photosynthetic pigments, b) both use starch to store food, c) share a unique form of cell division, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Which of the following types of algae are most like plants? a) colonial algae, b) filamentous algae, c) multicellular algae, d) unicellular algae
c) multicellular algae
Although algae are relatively unspecialized, they may have structures specialized for a) anchoring the thallus to the ocean bottom, b) reproduction, c) movement, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Zoospores are a) produced as a result of meiosis, b) all parasitic, c) produced as a result of mitosis, d) all of the above
c) produced as a result of mitosis
The haploid, gamete-producing phase in the life cycle of some protists is known as the a) zygospore generation, b) gametophyte, c) conjugation generation, d) sporophyte generation
b) gametophyte
The algal phylum most essential to the production of photosynthetic products and oxygen for Earth's heterotrophs is the phylum a) Chlorophyta, b) Bacillariophyta, c) Dinoflagellata, d) Phaeophyta
b) Bacillariophyta
Euglena is an example of a protist that a) is both autotrophic and heterotrophic, b) is only a parasite heterotroph, c) is always autotrophich, d) swims away from light
a) is both autotrophic and heterotrophic
A "mass of cytoplasm that can ooze around obstacles" is most likely a(n) a) fruiting body, b) water mold, c) slime mold, d) all of the above
c) slime mold
Slime molds would most likely be found in which of the following environments? a) the surface of a pond, b) the leaves of a plant, c) on the floor of a forest, d) in the soil
c) on the floor of a forest
The body of a water mold in the phylum Oomycota is a) composed of a colony of individual cells, b) multinucleate, c) filamentous, d) unicellular
c) filamentous
Biologists think fungi evolved from a) algae, b) plants, c) protists, d) prokaryotes
d) prokaryotes
Chitin is found in fungi and in a) clam shells, b) the outer shells of insects, c) some plant cell walls, d) snail shells
b) the outer shells of insects
Fungi a) do not contain chloroplasts, b) have cell walls that contain chitin, c) do not produce their own food, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Fungi obtain energy a) directly from the sun, b) from inorganic material in their environment, c) by absorbing digested nutrients, d) from nuclear fusion
c) by absorbing digested nutrients
Fungi obtain nutrients by a) photosynthesis, b) from inorganic material in their environment, c) by absorbing digested nutrients, d) from nuclear fusion
c) by absorbing digested nutrients
Mushrooms are examples of a) club fungi, b) sac fungi, c) molds, d) yeasts
a) club fungi
Mushrooms are members of the phylum a) Ascomycota, b) Basidiomycota, c) Zygomycota, d) non of the above
b) Basidiomycota
Zygospores allow molds to a) remain dormant until conditions are favorable for their spores, b) digest bread, c) grow unusually large, d) produce antibiotics
a) remain dormant until conditions are favorable for their spores
The group of fungi that includes the molds that often grow on bread is the a) ascomycetes, b) basidiomycetes, c) zygomycetes, d) deuteromycetes
c) zygomycetes
Reproductive structures in which spores form are known as a) septa, b) stolons, c) mycorrhizae, d) sporangia
d) sporangia
Fungi Imperfecti a) cause skin diseases in humans, b) do not reproduce sexually, c) are used to ferment soy sauce, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
A lichen a) consists of a fungus and a photosynthetic partner in a symbiotic relationship, b) is a sac fungus clump, c) is found only in temperate climates, d) is a mold found on the shady side of trees
a) consists of a fungus and a photosynthetic partner in a symbiotic relationship
Fungi are important to an ecosystem as a) produces, b) regulators, c) decomposers, d) controllers
c) decomposers
Which of the following is not a means by which fungi cause harm to humans? a) including allergic reactions, b) producing toxins, c) transmitting viral diseases, d) infecting internal organs
c) transmitting viral diseases
An example of a fungus is a) a mushroom, b) a bread mold, c) Penicillium, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Unlike plants, fungi lack ___ and cannot carry out photosynthesis
chloroplasts/ chlorophyll
Slime molds take up food from their environment by the process of ___
phagocytosis
Both types of slime molds produce ___ in a fruiting body when they reproduce
spores
Free-living protozoa live in a ___ environment
water/ aquatic
Forams have porous shells called ___
tests
T or F: Bacteria lack nuclei and therefore also lack genetic material
False
T or F: Bacterial cells have membrane-bound organelles and chromosomes
False
T or F: Some bacteria cannot survive in the presence of oxygen
True
T or F: Certain antibiotics have become ineffective against certain strains of bacteria. These bacteria have developed a resistance, which may be passed on from one generation of bacteria to the next.
True
T or F: Viruses consist of RNA or DNA surrounded by a coat of protein
True
T or F: Prions are the smallest known particles that are able to replicate
False
T or F:A virus can only reproduce by controlling a cell
True
T or F: Smallpox is caused by bacteria
False
T or F: Chickenpox and shingles are caused by the same virus
True
T or F: Emerging viruses normally do not infect humans, but they can when humans disturb their habitat
True
The earliest known group of living organisms on Earth was a) viruses, b) fungi, c) bacteria, d) protists
c) bacteria
Bacteria are the only organisms characterized as a) unicellular, b) prokaryotic, c) eukaryotic, d) photosynthetic
b) prokaryotic
Bacteria can be classified according to their a) type of cell walls, b) methods of obtaining energy, c) Gram-staining characteristics, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
When tested with a Gram stain, gram-positive bacteria are stained a) green, b) yellow, c) pink, d) purple
d) purple
It is important to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in diagnosing a bacterial infection because a) Gram-negative bacteria do not respond to many antibiotics, b) Gram-positive bacteria never cause fatal diseases, c) Gram-positive bacteria destroy antibiotics, preventing them from working, d) Gram-positive bacteria respond to many antibiotics
a) Gram-negative bacteria do not respond to many antibiotics
The cytoplasm of bacteria a) contains numerous types of organelles, b) is divided into compartments, c) has varying numbers of chromosomes, depending on the species of bacteria, d) contains a single molecule of DNA
d) contains a single molecule of DNA
Structures found in a eukaryotic cell but not in a bacterial cell are a) cell nuclei, b) chromosomes, c) membrane-bound organelles, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Which of the following might be found in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell? a) chloroplasts, b) Golgi bodies, c) mitochondria, d) none of the above
d) none of the above
Bacterial endospores a) occur where there is plenty of available food, b) allow certain species to survive harsh environmental conditions, c) are similar to human tumors, d) can cause growth abnormalities in plants
b) allow certain species to survive harsh environmental conditions
E. coli is an example of a bacterium that has short, thin, harilike projections called a) pili, b) cilia, c) cocci, d) ribosomes
a) pili
During the process of conjugation a) a virus contains DNA from a host bacterium, b) a bacterial cell takes in DNA from the external environment, c) one bacterium transfers DNA to another, d) two bacteria exchange DNA
c) one bacterium transfers DNA to another
A pathogen is an agent that is a) beneficial to humans, b) harmful only to plants, c) harmful to living organisms, d) nearly extinct
c) harmful to living organisms
Which of the following is a fermentation product of bacteria? a) ricotta cheese, b) ice cream, c) yogurt, d) cottage cheese
c) yogurt
Antibiotics a) include penicillin, tetracyline and streptomycin, b) may prevent bacteria from making new cell walls, c) are very effective treatments for bacterial diseases, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Unlike eubacteria, archaebacteria a) have cell walls, b) a re prokaryotes, c) have 2 cell membranes, d) are thought to be the ancestors of eukaryotes
d) are thought to be the ancestors of eukaryotes
Which of the following are members of the kingdom Archaebacteria? a) methanogens, b) eubacteria, c) eukaryotes, d) E. coli
a) methanogens
Bacilli, cocci and spirilla are a) Gram stains, b) shapes of prokaryotes, c) methods of prokaryotic movement, d) ways that prokaryotes obatin energy
b) shapes of prokaryotes
Unlike photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs obtain energy a) direcly from the sun, b) directly from inorganic molecules, c) indirectly from organic molecules, d) indirectly from other organisms
b) directly from inorganic molecules
Which of the following describes a role of bacteria in the environment? a) carrying out photosynthesis, b) recycling nutrients, c) fixing nitrogen, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Which of the following is a way that bacteria cause disease? a) by capsids, b) by nitrogen fixation, c) by conjugation, d) by releasing toxins
d) by releasing toxins
Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a bacterium? a) tooth decay, b) tuberculosis, c) AIDS, d) Salmonella food poisoning
c) AIDS
Which of the following is a characteristic of bacteria that is key to keeping them under control? a) Most bacteria cannot survive high temperatures for long periods, b) most bacteria are resistant to harmful chemicals, c) most bacteria from endospores when subjected to harsh conditions, d) most bacteria do not cause food to spoil
a) Most bacteria cannot survive high temperatures for long periods
Biologists now know that viruses a) are the smallest organisms, b) consist of a protein surrounded by a nucleic acid coat, c) contain RNA or DNA in a protein coat, d) all from the same crystalline shape
c) contain RNA or DNA in a protein coat
The capsid is a virus that has a(n) a) protective outer coat, b) cell membrane, c) nucleus, d) cell wall and membrane complex
a) protective outer coat
Viruses that use reverse transcriptase to cause their host cells to transcribe DNA from an RNA template are called a) bacteriophages, b) antibodies, c) retroviruses, d) capsoviruses
c) retroviruses
Which of the following contains only a nucleic acid? a) prion, b) virus, c) viroid, d) all of the above
c) viroid
Unlike viruses, prions a) are capable of reproducing outside of a host cell, b) are composed only of protein, c) can infect brain cells of mammals, d) can be treated with antibiotics
b) are composed only of protein
In which type of cell cycle(s) does viral DNA become integrated into the host cell's DNA? a) lytic, b) lysogenic, c) neither lytic nor lysogenic, d) lytic and lysogenic
b) lysogenic
Antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections because a) viruses are protected inside their host cells, b) viruses have enzymes that inactivate the antibiotics, c) antibiotics interfere with metabolic processes that viruses do not perform, d) viral protein coats block the antibiotics from entering the virus
c) antibiotics interfere with metabolic processes that viruses do not perform
Which of the following is not a viral disease of humans? a) hepatitis, b) rabis, c) shingles, d) all of the above are viral diseases of humans
d) all of the above are viral diseases of humans
Which of the following human activities is most closely associated with emerging viruses? a) absence of a vaccination program, b) crowded living conditions, c) clearcutting of forests, d) eating uncooked meat
c) clearcutting of forests
A lytic infection concludes with the a) embedding of viral DNA into the host cell's DNA, b) production of a prophage, c) bursting of the host cell, d) production of messenger RNA
c) bursting of the host cell
Bacteriophages infect a) other viruses, b) bacteria only, c) any available host cell, d) cells undergoing the lytic cell
b) bacteria only
Unlike lytic viruses, lysogenic viruses do NOT a) inject their genetic material into the host cell, b) enter the lytic cycles, c) lyse the host cell right away, d) infect host cells
c) lyse the host cell right away
During a lytic infection, the host cell is a) destroyed, b) prepared for the lysogenic cycle, c) copied many times over, d) all of the above
a) destroyed
Bacteria that are heterotrophic and feed on dead organic matter are called ___
saprophytic bacteria
The virus that causes AIDS is called ___
HIV
Some viruses are thought to induce ___, a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell division
cancer
An example of an emerging virus is the ___ virus
Ebola
T or F: The 3-domain system of classification differs from the 6-kingdom system in that it is based on a type of evidence that is found in all living things
True
T or F: The Greek philosopher Aristotle grouped animals into land dwellers, water dwellers and air dwellers
True
T or F: Cladograms represent direct information about ancestors and descendants, showing who came from whom
True
T or F: Linnaeus used a 5-kingdom classification system
False
T or F: Eukaryotes are the most abundant inhabitants on Earth
True
T or F: The 3-domain system of classification assumes that all living things had a common ancestor and that all living things today naturally fall into 3 groups that have descended from this common ancestor
True
T or F: Linnaeus' system of classification was based on morphological characteristics. Modern biologists try to classify organisms based on their evolutionary relationships to other organisms, which may or may not be reflected in similar morphological characteristics
True
T or F: To ensure accurate communication of information, biologists assign a unique 2-word scientific name to each organism
True
T or F: Mitosis distinguishes prokaryotic organisms from eukaryotes
False
T or F: Organisms in the Kingdom Animalia are multicellular and obtain nutrition by ingesting food
True
Animals that are warm-blooded have body hair and produce milk for their young are grouped in the class a) Amphibia, b) Mammalia, c) Aves, d) Repitila
b) Mammalia
The correct order of the biological hierarchy from kingdom to species is a) kingom, class, family, order, phylum, genus, species, b) kingdom, phylum, order, family, class, genus, species, c) kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, d) kingdom, class, order, phylum, family, genus, species
c) kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Scientists don't use the common names of organisms because a) an organism have more that one common name, b) common names are too ambiguous, c) an organism rarely has the same name in different languages, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
An analysis of derived characters is used to generate a a) family tree based on external appearance, b) family tree based on DNA structure, c) cladogram, d) traditional classification system
b) family tree based on DNA structure
Based on their names, you know that the baboons Papio annubis and Papio cynocephalus do NOT belong to the same a) class, b) family, c) genus, d) species
d) species
Most multicellular, nucleated autotrophs that carry on photosynthesis bolong to the kingdom a) Animalia, b) Eubacteria, c) Fungi, d) Plantae
d) Plantae
Scientists assign each kind of organism a universally accepted name in the system known as a) traditional classification, b) the 3 domains, c) binomial nomenclature, d) cladistics
b) the 3 domains
In the scientific version of a species name, which of the terms is capitalized? a) the first term only, b) the second term only, c) both the first and second terms, d) neither the first nor the second term
a) the first term only
Which do all organisms have in common? a) they use DNA and RNA to pass on information, b) they are all prokaryotes, c) they are all eukarytoes, d) they are genetically identical
a) they use DNA and RNA to pass on information
Similar genes are evidence of a) binomial nomenclature, b) mutations, c) common ancestry, d) different anatomy
c) common ancestry
Two organisms in the same order but different families may a) be more similar than two organisms in different classes, b) be in the same class, c) have the same species identifier, d) all of the above
b) be in the same class
Scientific names are written in what language? a) English, b) Greek, c) Arabic, d) Latin
d) Latin
Which of the following scientists developed the system of classifying organisms by assigning them a genus and species name? a) Leaky, b) Aristotle, c) Darwin, d) Linnaeus
d) Linnaeus
Which of the following is the least inclusive classification group? a) class, b) genus, c) phylum, d) species
d) species
Which of the following types of characteristics is used in systematic taxonomy to organize organisms? a) patterns of embryological development, b) morphology, c) amino acid sequences of proteins, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The 3-domain system of classification is based on similarities and differences in ___ evidence. The 6-kingdom system is based on similarities and differences in ___ evidence. a) DNA; DNA, fossil, embryological, and morphological, b) molecular structure; embryological, fossil, morphological, and molecular structure, c) ribosomal RNA; embryological, fossil, morphological, and a variety of molecular, d) morphological; embryological, fossils, morphological, and a variety of molecular
c) ribosomal RNA; embryological, fossil, morphological, and a variety of molecular
The most general and largest category in Linnaeus' system is a) the phylum, b) the kingdom, c) the genus, d) the domain
b) the kingdom
The science of classifying living things is called a) identification, b) classification, c) taxonomy, d) specialization
c) taxonomy
Simply, non-nucleated organisms that use hydrogen to produce methane are in the kingdom a) Archaebacteria, b) Eubacteria, c) Protista, d) Fungi
a) Archaebacteria
Several different classes make up a a) kingdom, b) phylum, c) family, d) genus
b) phylum
Phylogenetic trees depict a) known evolutionary relationships between organisms, b) presumed evolutionary relationships based on morphological evidence, c) only living organisms, d) presumed evolutionary relationships based on a variety of type of evidence
b) presumed evolutionary relationships based on morphological evidence
Which two kingdoms did Linnaeus recognize? a) bacteria and animals, b) plants and fungi, c) plants and animals, d) protists and animals
c) plants and animals
As we move through the biological hierarchy from he kingdom to species level, organisms a) vary more and more, b) are less and less related to each other, c) become more similar in appearance, d) always are members of the same order
b) are less and less related to each other
T or F: The fossil record suggests that species have become less diverse with time
False
T or F: Mass extinctions are long periods during which few species disappeared
False
T or F: The theory of evolution states that species change over time
True
T or F: The inheritance of acquired characteristics was one mechanism of evolution supported by Darwin
False
T or F: Species that have evolved from a common ancestor should have certain characteristics in common
True
T or F: The 2 major ideas that Darwin presented in The Origin of Species was that evolution occurred and that natural selection was it mechanism
True
T or F: Natural selection can cause the spread of an advantageous adaptation in a population
True
T or F: The environment selects which organisms will survive and reproduce by presenting challenges that only individuals with particular traits can meet
True
T or F: The theory of evolution predicts that genes will accumulate more alterations in their nucleotide sequences over time
True
T or F: Early in development, human embryos and the embryos of all other vertebrates are strikingly similar
True
T or F: Within populations, divergence leads to new species
True
T or F: Coevolution occurs when two or more species change in response to one another
True
Which of the following are examples of fossils? a) shells or old bones, b) any traces of dead organisms, c) footprints of human ancestors, insects trapped in tree sap, and animals buried in tar, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Animal fossils may form when a) an animal is buried by sediment, b) burial takes place on the ocean floor, in swamps, in mud, or in tar pits, c) the tissue is replaced by harder minerals, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Darwin concluded much of his research on a) The Samoan Islands, b) Manhattan Island, c) The Hawaiian Islands, d) The Galapagos Islands
d) The Galapagos Islands
The finches that Darwin studied differed in the shape of their beaks. According to Darwin, the finches probably a) all had a common ancestor, b) had been created by design that way, c) were descended from similar birds in Africa, d) ate the same diet
a) all had a common ancestor
The process by which a population becomes better suited to its environment is known as a) accommodation, b) variation, c) adaptations, d) selection
c) adaptations
In order to fit into their habitat, the Galapagos finches had a) not changed, b) been created as superior birds, c) evolved, d) all of the above
c) evolved
According to Darwin, evolution occurs a) by chance, b) during half-life periods of 5,715 years, c) because of natural selection, d) rapidly
c) because of natural selection
Organisms well suited to their environment a) reproduce more successfully than those less suited to the same environment, b) are always larger than organisms less suited to that environment, c) always live longer than organisms less suited to that environment, d) need less food than organisms less suited to that environment
a) reproduce more successfully than those less suited to the same environment
Natural selection is the process by which a) the age of selected fossils is calculated, b) organisms with traits well suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well-adapted organisms in the same environment, c) acquired traits are passed on from one generation to the next, d) all of the above
b) organisms with traits well suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well-adapted organisms in the same environment
Natural selection could not occur without a) genetic variation in species, b) environmental changes, c) competition for unlimited resources, d) gradual warming of the Earth
a) genetic variation in species
Scarcity of resources and a growing population are most likely to result in a) homology, b) protective coloration, c) competition, d) convergent evolution
c) competition
Which of the following is a vestigial structure? a) the human tailbone, b) the bill of a finch, c) flower color, d) fossil cast
a) the human tailbone
Homologous structures in organisms suggest that the organisms a) share a common ancestor, b) must have lived at different times, c) have a skeletal structure, d) are now extinct
a) share a common ancestor
Structures that no longer serve an important function are called a) inorganic, b) mutated, c) fossilized, d) vestigial
d) vestigial
The beak of a bird and the beak of a giant squid evolved independently and serve the same function. The beaks are a) convergent structures, b) homologous structures, c) analogous structures, d) hybrid structures
c) analogous structures
Evidence for evolution includes all of the following except a) acquired characteristics, b) similarities an differences in proteins and DNA sequences between organisms, c) the fossil record, d) homologous structures
a) acquired characteristics
The theory of evolution predicts that a) closely related species will show similarities in nucleotide sequences, b) it species have changed over time, their genes should have changed, c) closely related species will show similarities in amino acid sequences, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The accumulation of differences between species or population is called a) gradualism, b) adaptation, c) divergent evolution, d) cumulative differentiation
c) divergent evolution
The process by which two or more species change in response to each other is called a) compromise, b) parasitism, c) coevolution, d) ecology
c) coevolution
Over millions of years, plants and their pollinators have a) coevolved, b) crossbred, c) become parasites, d) become competitive
a) coevolved
T or F: Birds, reptiles and mammals minimize water loss by means of their waterweight skins.
True
T or F: Hair may serve as camouflage
True
T or F: Mammals have hair on their bodies and the ability to produce milk
True
T or F: Mammals have been the dominant land animals on Earth for over 500 million years
False
T or F: The geographic range of endothermic animals is greater than that of ectothermic animals because endothermic animals can survive in more extreme climates
True
T or F: The structure of a mamma's jaw and teeth usually reveal its diet
True
T or F: Marsupials are egg-laying mammals
False
T or F: Egg-laying mammals nourish their young after birth with milk
True
T or F: During its development, the embryo of a placental mammal is nourished by the mother through a unique structure called the placenta
True
T or F: The offspring of placental mammals receive nourishment through the placenta throughout development
True
T or F: The gestation period in marsupials is far shorter than the gestation period in placental mammals
True
T or F: Most species of mammals are placental
True
T or F: Animals of the order Cetacea are the only mammals that live entirely in the water
True
T or F: Monotremes are mammals that carry their young in pouches
False
T or F: Unlike most other animals, ungulates produce enzymes that aid in the digestion of cellulose
False
Mammals, as well as birds, have a) teeth, b) a four-chambered heart, c) air sacs, d) all of the above
b) a four-chambered heart
The large eye sockets on the early mammals suggest that the mammals a) could see in the back of their heads, b) did not have to turn their heads to see to the side, c) were active at night, d) lived in caves
c) were active at night
One of the main ways to distinguish the skull of a mammal from the skull of a therapsid is that mammals have a) a variety of teeth, b) eye sockets, c) a single jawbone, d) none of the above
c) a single jawbone
Hair may a) serve as insulation, b) have a sensory function, c) be a defensive weapon, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Mammals arose from early reptiles called a) mesosaurs, b) icthyosaurs, c) therapsids, d) pterosaurs
c) therapsids
Which of the following statements about the earliest mammals is true? a) They first appeared after the extinction of the dinosaurs, b) They outcompeted dinosaurs for food and other resources, resulting in the dinosaurs' extinction, c) They were large and preyed on many small dinosaurs, d) They coexisted with dinosaurs but did not compete with them for food and other resources
d) They coexisted with dinosaurs but did not compete with them for food and other resources
Which of the following processes is responsible for the greatest amount of daily water loss in humans? a) exhilation of water vapor, b) sweating, c) urination, d) none of the above
c) urination
The sheet of muscle at the bottom of the rib cage of mammals is called the a) secondary plate, b) metabolic sheet, c) diaphragm, d) placenta
c) diaphragm
During internal fertilization, a) a sperm is deposited directly inside an egg that is floating in a pond, b) males and females need not be present at the site of fertilization at the same time, c) a male deposits sperm directly into the female, d) a female deposits eggs into a nest and the male covers them with sperm
c) a male deposits sperm directly into the female
The function of the placenta in certain mammals is to a) hold the embryo in place, preventing premature loss, b) carry nutrition to and remove wastes from the embryo during development, c) surround and protect the embryo like a shell, d) maintain a constant internal temperature
b) carry nutrition to and remove wastes from the embryo during development
The major difference between marsupials and placentals is a) their ability to maintain a steady body temperature, b) their teeth, c) their pattern of embryonic development, d) the size of their eggs
c) their pattern of embryonic development
Offspring remain inside the mother until development is essentially complete in a) placental mammals, b) monotremes, c) marsupials, d) all of the above
a) placental mammals
Unlike reptiles mammalian young are dependent on parental care for a) food, b) protection, c) learning, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The placental mammals are animals that a) nurse their young with milk, b) have body hair, c) give birth to live young, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Mammals that lay eggs are a) placental mammals, b) pouched mammals, c) monotremes, d) semi-pouched mammals
c) monotremes
Egg-laying mammals are a) oviparous, b) viviparous, c) ovoviviparous, d) non of the above
a) oviparous
Kangaroos and opossums are a) marsupials, b) monotremes, c) macroscelidea, d) placentals
a) marsupials
The largest animal that ever lived is a) a cetaceans, b) the blue whale, c) a filter feeder, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
A dog is a member of the order a) Rodentia, b) Insectivora, c) Carnivora, d) Cetacea
c) Carnivora
the sounds that bats emit, a) help them navigate, b) help them capture their prey, c) are too high pitched to be heart by humans, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Dugongs and sea cows are a) toothless mammals, b) hoofed mammals, c) sirenians, d) marine hunters
c) sirenians
The earliest mammals a) appeared about 65 million years ago and had simple teeth, b) were large and resembled moder elephants, c) were small and probably the most active during the daytime, d) probably were nocturnal and ate insects
d) probably were nocturnal and ate insects
Mammals that have baleen feed on a) insects, b) nectar, c) plankton, d) fruit
c) plankton
Which body system includes the rumen? a) respiratory, b) circulatory, c) excretory, d) digestive
d) digestive
In mammals, the amount of water in the body is controlled mainly by the a) kidneys, b) diaphragm, c) heart, d) lungs
a) kidneys
Which part of a mammal's brain contains a well-developed cerebral cortex-the center of thinking? a) medulla oblongata, b) spinal cord, c) cerebrum, d) cerebellum
c) cerebrum
In which of the following mammals does an embryo spend the most time developing inside the mother? a) echidna, b) elephant, c) kangaroo, d) koala
b) elephant
A hoofed mammals is either a(n) a) perissodactyl of a proboscidean, b) perissodactyl or an artiodactyl, c) artiodactyl or a sirenian, d) sirenian or a xenarthran
b) perissodactyl or an artiodactyl
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of primates? a) opposable digits, b) a well-developed cerebrum, c) binocular vision, d) a cloaca
d) a cloaca
What adaptations did therapsids and mammals share? a) complex teeth, b) secondary plate, c) large synapsid openings, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The forelimbs of ___ are modified into flippers and are used to help these animals move through water. a) proboscideans, b) cetaceans, c) monotremes, d) edentatans
b) cetaceans
An animal that maintains a high nearly constant body temperature through metabolism is said to be ___.
endothermic
Mice and humans belong to a group of mammals in which the young receive nutrition from the mother through a structure called a(n) ___
placenta
Thr only mammals with binocular vision are the ___
primates
Perissodactyls have ___ numbers of toes while artiodactyls have ___ numbers of toes.
odd, even
T or F: The four tissue types in the body are ephithelial, muscle, nervous, and connective.
True
T or F: The smooth muscle that if found in the stomach walls is an example of a voluntary muscle.
False
T or F: Organs working together form an organ system.
True
T or F: The heart is located in the thoracic cavity
True
T or F: The majority of the bones of the skeletons are part of the axial skeleton
False
T or F: Yellow bone marrow is contained in the shaft of the long bones
True
T or F: Bone is living tissue made of cells that deposit minerals
True
T or F: The shoulder joint is an example of a ball-and-socket joint
True
T or F: A sarcomere is composed of filaments called myofibrils
False
T or F: Moving a muscle required three sets of muscles working in opposition
False
Tissue that is specialized to cover the inner and outer surfaces of the internal organs is called a) epithelial tissue, b) connective tissue, c) muscle tissue, d) nervous tissue
a) epithelial tissue
Blood, bone and cartilage are examples of a) three different tissue types found in the body, b) connective tissues, c) epithelial tissue, d) organs of the body
b) connective tissues
Connective tissue consists of a) tendons that connect muscle to bone, b) the layer beneath your skin that connects the skin to muscle, c) fat, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
From the smallest function units to the largest, the body is organized as follows: a) cell, system, organ, tissue, body, b) organ, cell, tissue, system, body, c) system, organ, tissue, cell, body, d) cell, tissue, organ, system, body
d) cell, tissue, organ, system, body
Organs that work together form a) connective tissues, b) tissue systems, c) organ systems, d) all of the above
c) organ systems
The heart and the blood vessels are separate organs that form that a) skeletal system, b) circulatory system, c) reproductive system, d) digestive system
b) circulatory system
Which of the following is a function of both the excretory system and the endocrine system? a) elimination of wastes, b) water and mineral balance, c) regulation of other organ systems, d) transport of wastes out of the body
b) water and mineral balance
Of the following, the structure that is not part of the axial skeleton is the a) backbone, b) pelvis, c) rib cage, d) skull
b) pelvis
Osteocytes trapped within the spaces in the bone surrounding them a) are called marrow cells, b) are provided with food and oxygen by Haversian canals, c) receive nutrients directly from the cells of the surrounding cartilage, d) eventually become osteoblasts as the bone matures
b) are provided with food and oxygen by Haversian canals
Yellow marrow a) provides internal support to spongy bone, b) produces red blood cells, c) is found only in lower vertebrates, d) stores fat
d) stores fat
The periosteum is a section of the bone that contains a) blood vessels, b) osteocytes, c) spongy bone, d) red bone marrow
a) blood vessels
The heart and lungs are protected by the a) pectoral girdle, b) pelvic girdle, c) rib cage, d) periosteum
c) rib cage
In an embryo, the skeleton is originally made of a) red and yellow marrow, b) calcium phosphate, c) cartilage, d) osteopores
c) cartilage
What is the difference between cartilage and bone? a) Cartilage contains cells that can continue to divide and grow, while bone does not, b) Cartilage is found in the fetus, and bone is found in children and adults, c) Bone contains cells with significant mineral deposits between them, while cartilage does not, d) Bone contains dead cells while cartilage contains living cells
c) Bone contains cells with significant mineral deposits between them, while cartilage does not,
Ligaments attach a) bone to bone, b) muscle to bone, c) muscle to muscle, d) cartilage to bone
a) bone to bone
The point where two or more bones meet is called a a) sprain, b) joint, c) point of intersection, d) growth region
b) joint
Women are more susceptible than men to the effects of osteoporosis because a) their bones are smaller than those of men, b) they lose calcium during the child-bearing years, c) sex hormone production declines during menopause, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Degeneration of cartilage causes a) menopause, b) bone replacement, c) bone fractures, d) osteoarthritis
d) osteoarthritis
The 3 types of muscles are a) skeletal, smooth, cardiac, b) skeletal, voluntary, cardiac, c) smooth, cardiac, involuntary, d) skeletal, cardiac, ridged
a) skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Smooth muscle a) can change the diameter of blood vessels, b) moves food through the digestive tract, c) is not under conscious control, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The functional unit of muscle contraction is called the a) myofibril, b) sarcomere, c) muscle fiber, d) myosin filament
b) sarcomere
Repeating units of myosin and actin filaments bound by two Z lines are a) muscles, b) myofibrils, c) sarcomeres, d) extensors
c) sarcomeres
It has been known for a long time that muscle contraction requires ATP. Recently, scientists have discovered that ATP is required in order for the muscle filaments actin and myosin to slide past each other, resulting in muscle contraction. The ATP is specifically required to release the attachments between actin and myosin in the many cycles of attachment, release, and reattachment that result in sliding of these filaments past each other. Which of the following phenomena is explained by this specific role of ATP? a) muscle fatigue, b) stiffening of a body after death (rigor mortis), c) opposing pairs of muscles functioning as flexors and extensors, d) muscle sprain
b) stiffening of a body after death (rigor mortis)
The total amount of force that muscle can exert a) is determined by the strength of the nerve impulse that caused the contraction, b) depends on the total number of individual muscle fibers that have been stimulated, c) is dependent upon the weight of the object being moved, d) correlates to the number of Z lines contained within the sarcomeres of the muscle
b) depends on the total number of individual muscle fibers that have been stimulated
Muscle tissue functions to move a) blood, b) food in the digestive tracts, c) bones, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Tendons connect a) bone to bone, b) muscle to bone, c) muscle to muscle, d) cartilage to bone
a) bone to bone
Muscles that function by bending joints, such as the biceps, are categorized as a) flexors, b) abductors, c) extensors, d) abductors
a) flexors
the origin of a muscle a) is at the opposite end of the muscle from the insertion, b) is located on a bone that remains stationary when the muscle contracts, c) does not move when the muscle contracts, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The functions of the skin include a) defense against microbes, b) regulation of body temperature, c) prevention of dehydration, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The most effective way(s) to reduce the risk of skin cancer includes(s) a) always staying in water, b) increasing exposure to the sunlight gradually, c) minimizing exposure to sunlight and using a sunscreen, d) all of the above
c) minimizing exposure to sunlight and using a sunscreen
The thin outer layer of the skin is a) the dermis, b) the epidermis, c) the fatty layer, d) connective skin
b) the epidermis
Keratin a) is a strong, fibrous protein, b) fills dead cells in the dermis, c) as a skin pigment, d) all of the above
a) is a strong, fibrous protein
Hair and nails are produced by the cells of the a) dermis, b) subcutanerous layer, c) subcutaneous glands, d) epidermis
d) epidermis
A skin disorder caused by blockage of oil glands is called a) acne, b) carcinoma, c) osteoporosis, d) psoriasis
a) acne
The largest cavity in the human body is the ___ cavity
Abdominal
The bones of the skull and backbone is part of the ___ skeleton
axial
___ is a membrane that surrounds individual bones
periosteum
Muscle that function to straighten a joint are called ___
extensor
The brown pigment, ___, is responsible for most skin color
melanin
The process in which bone cells gradually replace cartilage is called a) ossification, b) osteoarthritis, c) restoration, d) none of the above
a) ossification
The axial skeleton includes bones of the a) arms, b) legs, c) ribs, d) all of the above
c) ribs
Semimovable joints are found a) in the knees, b) between vertebrae, c) in the thumbs, d) in the elbows
b) between vertebrae
Tough bands of connective tissue that hold bones in place are called a) ligaments, b) tendons, c) gliding joints, d) muscles
a) ligaments
Osteoarthritis is characterized by a) stretching of ligaments, b) autoimmunity, c) fracturing of bones, d) thinning of cartilage
d) thinning of cartilage
Nervous tissue contains specialized cells called a) transmitters, b) messenger cells, c) neurons, d) cardiac cells
c) neurons
Tissue that binds, supports, and protects structures is called a) connective tissue, b) muscle tissue, c) skeletal tissue, d) epithelial tissue
a) connective tissue
Organ systems consist of a) tissues, b) cells, c) organs, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
the body cavity that contains the heart, esophagus and organs of the respiratory system is the a) cranial cavity, b) spinal cavity, c) abdominal cavity, d) thoracic cavity
d) thoracic cavity
Which organ system includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, lungs, and skin? a) integumentary system, b) digestive system, c) excretory system, d) endocrine system
c) excretory system
The heart of a mammal a) contains two chambers, like the heart of a bird, b) contains four chambers, like the heart of an amphibian, c) has two completely separate ventricles, d) allows deoxygenated blood to mix with oxygenated blood
c) has two completely separate ventricles
The lower jaw of a mammal a) is composed of a single bone, b) contains teeth that are uniform in size, c) contains teeth that are uniform in shape, d) does not usually leave a trace in the fossil record
a) is composed of a single bone
Some therapsids are believed to have had all of the following features except a) limbs positioned under the body, b) moist, wet skin, c) endothermy, d) hair
b) moist, wet skin
2 groups of vertebrates that appeared at about the same time during the Triassic period were a) synapsids and fishes, b) therapsids and amphibians, c) mammals and reptiles, d) mammals and dinosaurs
d) mammals and dinosaurs
Early mammals are thought to have avoided competition with dinosaurs by feeding on a) insects at night, b) plants at night, c) plants during the day, d) small vertebrates during the day
a) insects at night
The only egg-laying mammals are found in the order a) Monotremata, b) Marsupialia, c) Sirenia, d) Rodentia
a) Monotremata
The fossil record indicates that marsupials once dominated South America but were gradually displaced by a) monotremes, b) placental mammals, c) dinosaurs, d) opossums
b) placental mammals
The teeth of insectivores are adapted for a) chiseling through roots and twigs, b) grinding plant material, c) consuming a variety of food, d) grasping and piercing prey
d) grasping and piercing prey
Mammals in the order Chiroptera are commonly called a) sloths, b) manatees, c) bats, d) whales
c) bats
Mammals with steamlined bodies adapted for efficient swimming are found in the orders a) Edentata, Lagomorpha, Sirenia, b) Carnivora, Cetacea, Sirenia, c) Cetacea, Proboscidea, Artiodactyla, d) Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Rodentia
b) Carnivora, Cetacea, Sirenia
Which of the following mammals is a tapir most closely related to? a) horse, b) pig, c) walrus, d) porcupine
a) horse
One place where you would expect to find mammals but not reptiles is a) a desert, b) the Arctic, c) a rain forest, d) the ocean
b) the Arctic
One mammalian feature that is an adaptation for endothermy is a) a four-chambered heart, b) the presence of specialized teeth, c) a single lower jawbone, d) oviparity
a) a four-chambered heart
the human appendix is a vestigial a) placenta, b) septum, c) cecum, d) rumen
c) cecum
The lungs of a mammal a) expels air when the diaphragm contracts, b) contain a few large but very efficient alveoli, c) supply blood to placental mammals even before they are born, d) have a much larger surface area than the lungs of a reptile
d) have a much larger surface area than the lungs of a reptile
At hatching, a monotreme is a) very small and only partially developed, b) small but fully developed, c) nearly adult-sized but only partially developed, d) nearly adult-sized and fully developed
a) very small and only partially developed
Fossils are formed a) from animals but not plants, b) primarily from the soft tissues of an organism, c) most often in sedimentary rock, d) in ways that reveal the structure but no the behavior of an organism
d) in ways that reveal the structure but no the behavior of an organism
According to the lay of superposition, the lowest layer in a cross section of rock a) is the most recent, b) is the oldest, c) has the fewest fossils, d) contains only the fossils of burrowing animals
b) is the oldest
The fossil record indicates that the first organisms to appear on Earth were a) marine invertebrates, b) land plants, c) reptiles, d) prokaryotes
d) prokaryotes
A comparison of recently formed fossil types with types of living organisms shows that a) new organisms arise in areas where similar forms already live, b) modern organisms are very different from extinct forms that inhabited the same area, c) organisms that become extinct do not resemble modern organisms, d) a new organism cannot arise in an area until a similar form has already become extinct
c) organisms that become extinct do not resemble modern organisms,
If Lamarck's hypothesis of species modification were true, the children of a person who developed large muscles by lifting weights would be born with a) smaller-than-average muscles, b) normal-sized muscles, c) normal-sized muscle that would become larger only if the children also lifted weights, d) larger-than-average muscles
d) larger-than-average muscles
when Darwin saw fossil shells of marine organisms in the mountains he reasoned that a) powerful storms scooped the animals out of the ocean and left them in the mountains, b) ancient rock beds that were beneath the sea were elevated to form mountain ranges, c) the ancient oceans were so deep that they covered the mountains, d) the organisms that left the fossils migrated from the ocean to the mountains
b) ancient rock beds that were beneath the sea were elevated to form mountain ranges
Darwin's theory of descent with modification states that a) newer forms appearing in the fossil record are the modified descendants of older species, b) organisms that descend from high elevations are modified as they acquire new traits, c) all living things descended from a recent common ancestor on the Galapagos Islands, d) individuals modify their behavior to survive and then pass those modifications on to their descendants
a) newer forms appearing in the fossil record are the modified descendants of older species
According to Darwin's theory of modification by natural selection a) individuals are modifies by adverse environmental conditions, b) the environment affects all organisms in a population in the same way, c) populations of all organisms grow unchecked under natural conditions, d) organisms that have more favorable traits tend to leave more offspring
d) organisms that have more favorable traits tend to leave more offspring
In an evolutionary sense, an individual organism has high fitness if it a) has a large number of acquired traits, b) can run long distances without becoming exhausted, c) reproduces more successfully than other individuals, d) evolves into another organism rather than becoming extinct
c) reproduces more successfully than other individuals
The wing of a bat and the foreleg of an alligator are a) analogous features, b) homologous features, c) vestigial features, d) artificially selected features
b) homologous features
Embryological comparisons reveal that a) all vertebrate embryos look similar at early stages of development, b) embryos of different vertebrates look more similar as development proceeds, c) rabbit embryos look like adult fish, d) gorillas begin life as fish then develop into gorillas during an embryonic stage
a) all vertebrate embryos look similar at early stages of development
the corresponding changes of two or more species that are closely associated with each other, such as a plant and an animal that pollinates is, are called a) adaptive radiation, b) divergent evolution, c) convergent evolution, d) coevolution
d) coevolution
Artificial selection is used to a) speed up the process of divergent evolution, b) slow down the process of convergent evolution, c) produce vestigial structures in selected species of animals, d) study the evolutionary history of organisms that contain similar proteins
a) speed up the process of divergent evolution
The organisms that live in hostile environments that cannot support other forms of life are members of the kingdom a) Protista, b) Archaebacteria, c) Eubacteria, d) Fungi
b) Archaebacteria
Amoebas and giant kelp belong to the kingdom a) Fungi, b) Plantae, c) Protista, d) Archaea
c) Protista
Mushrooms, puffballs, mildews, and molds belong to the kingdom a) Fungi, b) Plantae, c) Protista, d) Eukarya
a) Fungi
The domain that includes the organisms that cause tooth decay and food poisoning is called a) Eukarya, b) Archaea, c) Bacteria, d) Eubacteria
c) Bacteria
The domain that includes organisms with true nuclei and membrane-bound organelles is called a) Bacteria, b) Archaea, c) Animalia, d) Eukarya
d) Eukarya
the domain Eukarya includes a) archaebacteria, protists, fungi, and plants, b) protists, fungi, plants, and animals, c) protists, fungi, eubacteria, and archaebacteria, d) fungi, eubacteria, plants, and animals
b) protists, fungi, plants, and animals
Aristotle classified animals on the basis of a) their size, b) their evolutionary history, c) where they lived, d) what they ate
c) where they lived
the main criterion used in Linnaeus' system of classification is an organism's a) phylogeny, b) morphology, c) taxonomy, d) hierarchy
b) morphology
Each subset within a class of organisms is called a) an order, b) a family, c) a genus, d) a phylum
a) an order
In the scientific name of an organism the first part is that a) species identifier, b) variety, c) subspecies, d) genus
d) genus
The legs of insects and the legs of mammals a) are shared derived characters, b) are homologous structures, c) suggest descent from a common ancestor, d) evolved independently in the two groups
d) evolved independently in the two groups
Examination of embryological patterns of development reveals that a) the blastopore becomes the same end of the digestive system in echinoderms and mollusks, b) each cell in the embryo of an echinoderm or vertebrate has the potential to form an entire organism, c) echinoderms are more closely related to arthropods than to vertebrates, d) vertebrates are more closely related to mollusks than to echinoderms
b) each cell in the embryo of an echinoderm or vertebrate has the potential to form an entire organism
The molecular-clock model of evolutionary relationships is based on the assumption that changes in amino acid sequence a) are not random, b) are affected by natural selection, c) are greater in species with more-distant common ancestors, d) occur at different rates in different organisms
c) are greater in species with more-distant common ancestors
One example of a derived character is provided by the a) feathers of birds, b) legs of birds, c) legs of insects, d) chromosomes of chimpanzees
a) feathers of birds
Cladistic taxonomists establish evolutionary relationships among organisms by examining the organisms' a) morphological similarities, b) analogous structures, c) homologous chromosomes, d) shared derived characters
d) shared derived characters
T or F: Bacteria that can survive only in the absence of oxygen are called obligate aerobes
False
T or F: Ancient bacteria known as archaebacteria are now extinct.
False
T or F: Gram-negative bacteria appear purple when they undergo the Gram-stain procedure
False
T or F: The bacterial cell wall prevents the passage of antibiotics and is the only means by which bacteria can resist antibiotics
False
T or F: The terms eubacteria and archaebacteria refer to members of a single kingdom
False
Which of the following associations incorrectly describes an archaebacterium and its characteristics? a) extreme halophile-high salt environments, b) methanogen-aerobic environment, c) thermoacidophile-hot, acidic environment, d) methanogen-human intestinal tract
b) methanogen-aerobic environment
Gram-positive bacteria differ from Gram-negative bacteria in a) their response to the Gram stain, b) the make-up of their cell walls, c) their susceptibility to antibiotics, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Which of the following bacteria are thought to be responsible to establishing Earth's oxygen-rich atmosphere? a) methanogens, b) extreme halophiles, c) cyanobacteria, d) spirochetes
c) cyanobacteria
Genetic recombination in bacteria a) is a form of sexual reproduction, b) includes transformation and translation, c) includes transformation and transduction, d) always requires a conjugation bridge
c) includes transformation and transduction
Bacterial cells typically lack a) a cell membrane, b) mitochondria, c) a cell wall, d) chromosomes
b) mitochondria
Which of the following is not a bacterial structure that provides the type of movement indicated? a) pilus-crawling motion, b) flagellum-turning and tumbling while moving foreward, c) slime layer- gliding, d) spiral shape- corkscrew motion
a) pilus-crawling motion
Genetic recombination in bacteria always involves a) viruses, b) transfer of DNA through a conjugation bridge, c) transfer of one or more plasmids, d) transfer of genes between bacterial cells
d) transfer of genes between bacterial cells
Bacterial diseases of the intestines are usually transmitted by a) sneezes and coughs, b) direct contact, c) contaminated water or food, d) contaminated wounds
c) contaminated water or food
which of the following is not a mechanism of action of an antibiotic? a) inhibiting cell wall synthesis, b) inhibiting conjugation, c) inhibiting protein synthesis, d) inhibiting DNA synthesis
b) inhibiting conjugation
On what bases have bacteria traditionally been classified? a) shape, b) response to Gram stain, c) type of respiration, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
T or F: Viruses are grouped according to the type and number of nucleic acid strands they contain, their shape, and whether or not they are enveloped
True
T or F: New virus particles are made using instructions encoded in host DNA
True
T or F: Retroviruses have an enzyme that make DNA from RNA
True
T or F: In general, viruses are larger than cells
False
T or F: Viruses have been linked to some forms of cancer
True
A viral genome consists of a) either DNA or RNA, b) either DNA or protein, c) both RNA and protein, d) both DNA and RNA
a) either DNA or RNA
the lytic cycle differs from the lysogenic cycle in that the a) lysogenic cycle kills the host cells the the lytic cycle does not kill host cells, b) lytic cycle occurs immediately following infection and the lysogenic cycle ocurs after a period of months or years, c) lytic cycle kills the host cells and the lysogenic cycle does not kill host cells, d) lytic cycle is characteristic of bacteriophages and the lysogenic cycle is characteristicc of viruses that infect eukaryotic cells
b) lytic cycle occurs immediately following infection and the lysogenic cycle ocurs after a period of months or years
the viral nucleic acid becomes integrated into the host cell's DNA during a virus's a) lytic cycle, b) lysogenic cycle, c) lytic cycle and lysogenic cycle, d) none of the above
b) lysogenic cycle
Which of the following is not effective in viral-disease prevention of treatment? a) antibiotics, b) vaccines, c) antiviral drugs, d) control of animals that spread viruses
a) antibiotics
Which of the following associations between a virus and the human disease it causes is incorrect? a) HIV-AIDS, b) chickenpox virus-shingles, c) hepatitis B virus- yellow fever, d) influenza virus-flu
c) hepatitis B virus- yellow fever
Wendell Stanley is best known for a) determining the structure of HIV, b) being first to culture a virus, c) being the first to crystallize a virus, d) producing the first vaccine against TMV
c) being the first to crystallize a virus
Reverse transcriptase a) synthesizes RNA using DNA as a template, b) synthesizes DNA using protein as a template, c) synthesizes DNA using RN as a template, d) all of the above
c) synthesizes DNA using RN as a template
What most limits the effectiveness of vaccines in preventing viral diseases? a) it is difficult to make enough vaccine to protect the entire population, b) viruses constantly change, and the vaccine may not recognize a new form of a virus, c) Occasionally a vaccine can cause the disease it is meant to prevent, d) some viral diseases are caused by a combination of two or more viruses
b) viruses constantly change, and the vaccine may not recognize a new form of a virus
T or F: Conjugation is a process of sexual reproduction in ciliates
True
T or F: Protozoa are thought to have descended from multicellular eukaryotes
False
T or F: All protozoa are parasitic during at least part of their life
False
Protozoan habitats are characterized by the presence of a) host organisms, b) algae, c) moisture, d) blood
c) moisture
Which of the following is an adaptation to extreme environments? a) cyst formation, b) food vacuoles, c) eyespots, d) multiple fission
a) cyst formation
Sarcodines use their pseudopodia for a) capturing food, b) engulfing food, c) movement, d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Which of the following structures is not involved in feeding in ciliates? a) contractile vacuole, b) cilia, c) oral groove, d) gullet
a) contractile vacuole
Certain sarcodines affect Earth's geology by a) secreting acids that break down rock into soil, b) ingesting calcium carbonate and secreting silicon dioxide, c) having mineralized shells that form sedimentary rock after they die, d) washing up onto shores when they die, and causing the accumulation of silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate
c) having mineralized shells that form sedimentary rock after they die
What do trypanosomiasis, Chaga's disease, leishmaniasis, and giardiasis have in common? a) they are all caused by sporozoans, b) they are all transmitted by insects, c) they all primarily affect the heart and the brain, d) they are all caused by zooflagellates
d) they are all caused by zooflagellates
which of the following is not a characteristic of the life cycle of Plasmodium? a) the life cycle can be completed solely in the mosquito host, but cannot be completed in the human host, b) sexual reproduction occurs in the mosquito host, and asexual reproduction occurs in the human host, c) the organism forms four different types of cells during its life cycle, d) because there are two hosts of the disease oraganism the disease can be controlled by reducing the population of the nonhuman host.
a) the life cycle can be completed solely in the mosquito host, but cannot be completed in the human host
Pseudopodia are extensions of a sarcodine's a) pellicle, b) cilia, c) flagella, d) cytoplasm
d) cytoplasm
In Paramecium, the macronucleus a) participates in the exchange of genetic material during conjugation, b) is also called the micronucleus, c) contain the micronucleus, d) contains multiple copies of DNA
d) contains multiple copies of DNA
Which of the following best describes members o f the kingdom Protista? a) they are muticellular and eukaryotic, b) they are multicellular and prokaryotic, c) they are single-celled and eukaryotic, d) they are single-celled and prokaryotic
c) they are single-celled and eukaryotic
T or F: All algae contain the pigment chlorophyll a.
True
T or F: both algae and plants form gametes in multicellular chambers called gametangia
False
T or F: Euglenoids are either autotrophic or heterotrophic, depending on their environment
True
Algae differ from most other protists in that they are a) unicellular and photosynthetic, b) unicellular or multicellular and photosynthetic, c) multicellular and photosynthetic, d) unicellular and photosynthetic or heterotrophic
b) unicellular or multicellular and photosynthetic
Which of the following is a characteristic of all algae? a) pyrenoids, b) conjugation tube, c) thallus, d) a holdfast
c) thallus
Most algae form gametes that are a) visibly similar but chemically different, b) visibly different from each other, c) visibly and chemically similar to each other, d) visibly different but chemically similar
a) visibly similar but chemically different
Which phylum of algae includes the most-divers organisms in terms of form, habitat, and lifestyle? a) Rhodophyta, b) Dinoflagellata, c) Chlorophyta, d) Chrysophyta
c) Chlorophyta
Diatoms are unlike other algae in that they a) are nonmotile, b) store food in the form of laminarin, c) surround themselves in boxes made of silicon dioxide, d) lack cell walls
c) surround themselves in boxes made of silicon dioxide
Which of the following best describes euglenoids? a) they are parasitic, b) they can form cysts when exposed to environmental stress, c) they lack contractile vacuoles, d) they lack cell walls and are highly motile
d) they lack cell walls and are highly motile
Slime molds typically live a) in moist environments containing dead plant material, b) on moist, living plants, c) in water, d) inside living animals
a) in moist environments containing dead plant material
Which of the following best describes the life cycle of a slime mold? a) the feeding form is nonmotile, and the fruiting body is motile, b) the feeding form is motile, and the fruiting body is nonmotile, c) the feeding form cannot survive in dry environments, and the fruiting body can, d) the feeding form is unicellular, and the fruiting body is multicellular
b) the feeding form is motile, and the fruiting body is nonmotile
All water molds can be characterized as a) living in aquatic environments, b) saprophytes, c) parasites, d) having filamentous bodies
d) having filamentous bodies
Algal reproduction structures form gametes a) in multicellular chambers called gametangia, b) in unicellular chambers called gametangia, c) in organelles called pyrenoids, d) none of the above
b) in unicellular chambers called gametangia
T or F: The cell walls of fungi are composed of cellulose
False
T or F: All fungi reproduce asexually and sexually
False
T or F: Mycorrhizae and lichens are associations in which the fungus benefits and the other organism is harmed
False
T or F: Fungi imperfecti reproduce only sexually
False
T or F: Fungi evolved from prokaryotes through endosymbiosis
True
A mycelium is an interwoven mat of a) spores, b) septa, c) hyphae, d) conidia
c) hyphae
All asexual reproductive spores in fungi are a) diploid, b) composed of only one cell, c) produced on stalklike structures, d) produced on either "plus" or "minus" hyphae
b) composed of only one cell
Which of the following is not a means by which humans use fungi to make food? a) cooking fungal structures, b) genetically engineering fungi, c) alchohol production, d) bread production
b) genetically engineering fungi
Which of the following is not a medically useful substance produced by a fungus? a) penicillin, b) hepatitis B vaccine, c) cortisone, d) aflatoxin
d) aflatoxin
Fungi cause disease in humans through a) infection only, b) allergies only, c) infection and allergies, d) infection, poisoning, and allergies
d) infection, poisoning, and allergies
Unlike animals, fungi a) ingest their food before digesting it, b) photosynthesize their food before digesting it, c) photosynthesize their food before ingesting it, d) digest their food before ingesting it
d) digest their food before ingesting it