psychopathology quiz #1

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Terms in this set (...)

understanding the nature, causes and treatment of mental disorder
abnormal psychology
abnormal behavior
psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or expected (doesn't equal mental illness)
abnormal
suffering, maladaptiveness, deviance, violations of societal standards, social discomfort, irrationality, unpredictability
schizophrenia - Gottesman concordance rates - lifetime risk
monozygotic - 48%, (share 100% of genetic material) dizygotic - 16%, (share same genetic material as siblings) biological siblings - 10%, unrelated 1%
ASD, ADHD, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression
5 conditions that have a high heritability index (80%)
stress = HBP = hypertension = coronary heart disease = death
stress (cortisol)
bonding
grownup connects to someone who's younger, also with peers
attachment
child connects to grown up
supernatural
shamanism and trephining, early Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks and spirits
biological
hippocrates and the golden age of Greece, Plato and his republic, later Greek and roman physicians, Chinese (Chung Ching)
first classification system, key observer of human condition
hippocrates and the golden age of Greece (biological)
communities should be treating mentally ill
plato and his republic (biological)
dissected animals, neuroscience discoveries, found that you could trace stress to environmental factors
later Greek and Roman physicians (Galen, biological)
organic pathology, mind-body connection, herbal medicine
Chinese (Chung Ching, biological)
middle ages
renaissance, Johann Weyer: german physician, worked with people in prison, Avicenna: classical psychology, body soul connection
psychological (transition period)
humanitarian reform, mental hygiene movement, discovery of syphilis and the medical model, psychoanalytic model
moral management: Pinel removed chains off patients (after french revolution) asylum = sanctuary
humanitarian reform (psychological)
Dorthea Dix worked in women's prisons
mental hygiene movement (psychological)
syphilis: general paresis mimics schizophrenia, dementia praecox
discovery of syphilis and the medical model ( psychological)
scientific advances in medicine
lithium, phenothiazine: antihistamine, byproduct effects dopamine and decreases hallucinogens, dopamine theory of schizophrenia
feeling pain in the absence of organic damage
TMS (Sarno)
etiology = causation
assessment, evaluation, diagnosis, multimodal approach, bio-psycho-social
nomothetic
principles that apply to people in general (all people experience anger)
idiographic
how does the theory apply on an individual level (how does a particular person express their anger)
diathesis = nature, (bio-psycho-sociocultural) stress = nurture
diathesis-stress model (MEEHL)
interactive model
some amount of diathesis must be present before stress will have any effect
resiliency
one parent is warm and emotionally supportive, empathy and compassion, ability to adapt and resist
protective factors: cognitive intelligence, confidence, self-regulation, motivation, effective parenting, well functioning neurological system (stress damages all of these)
ability to preserve and adapt in the face of stressful circumstances
additive model
individuals who have a high level of diathesis may need only a small amount of stress before a disorder develops and vice versa
recent brain discoveries
neurogenesis and antidepressants, periods of extensive brain development, adolescent pruning, redefining maturity (brain based)
hypothalamus, amygdala, and right pre-frontal cortex
attachment and brain structures
HPA axis
PTSD and brain structures
substance abuse and cerebellar vermis
helps deal with frustration and tolerance
psychoanalytic/psychodynamic theories (conflict theory)
emphasis on early experiences, drive theory (instinct, sex, aggression)
personality development
primary unconscious and heavily influenced by emotions, understood from a developmental perspective - psychosexual development
abuse and addiction
abuse = has conflict, addiction/dependence = not trying to stop
classical psychoanalysis, self psychology - deficit theory, relational-contemporary object relations model
3 model approach (Martha Stark)
classical psychoanalysis
goal: awareness and adaptation (self-insight), walk through resistance and defenses
self psychology (deficit theory - Kohut)
relationship with parents and what children need, internal absence of good (defend against refusal to accept/grieve about object/loss) goal: emphathy, move to acceptance, accepting the limits of the object
contemporary object relations model
how we move from self to other centered, corrective emotional experiences, internal presence of the bad, fuels repetition compulsion, re-enact unresolved shit, work through energy that will arise when you bring shit back in
unresolved issues (unconscious conflict) and painful experiences, transference based and blank screen
classical psychopathology
contemporary psychopathology
unmet needs from relationships, attending to interaction in treatment (counter-transference) relationships as models, interactional (corrective emotional experiences, Kohut)
Brier's study
early parental loss followed by non-supportive home environment is an indicator of adult psychopathology
front = anterior, top = dorsal, back = posterior, bottom = ventral, in = medial, out = lateral
brain directionality
left hemisphere: verbal, math, logic, right hemisphere: perception, performance
cerebral cortex
frontal: thinking, reasoning, memory, temporal: sight and sound, LT memory storage, parietal: touch, occipital: vision
4 lobes of cerebral cortex
midbrain
substantia nigra and reticular formation, all information between brain and spinal cord passes through the this area
substantia nigra - midbrain
part of extra pyramidal motor system (EMS), movement, Parkinson's disease
reticular formation - midbrain
sleep, arousal, reflex, reticular activating system, filters out irrelevant information
forebrain
consists of central core, right and left hemisphere, hypothalamus, thalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system
hypothalamus - forebrain
controls autonomic nervous system and endocrine system, maintains homeostasis, temperature, metabolism, motivated behavior, reward, sex, aggression
thalamus - forebrain
central switching station, relays incoming information to cortex except olfactory
mediates emotional components of behavior: amygdala, septum, hippocampus, cortex
limbic system - forebrain
amygdala - limbic - forebrain
integrates and directs emotional behavior, attaches emotional significance to information, mediates defense/aggressive behavior
septum - limbic - forebrain
inhibits emotionality, pleasure center
memory processing, transfers STM to LTM
hippocampus - limbic - forebrain
higher cognitive sensory and motor function, 4 lobes (judgment, comprehension, language, personality, abstract thinking)
cortex - limbic - forebrain
animal studies
analog
ecological theory = systems theory
emphasizes environmental factors, integrated into family therapy theories
development reflects influences of several environmental systems: micro, meso, exo, macro, chrono - system
Bronfenbrenner's systems theory
microsystem
setting in which individuals live
mesosystem
relationships within your microsystem (family, peers)
exosystem
links within your social setting that you don't have an active role in (parent's stress from work)
macrosystem
culture at large
chronosystem
patterns of environmental events, transitions over life course (divorce = transition)
reliability, natural consequences, relationships, insight, behavioral modification (TOP TO BOTTOM)
robert brooks
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