● If the client smokes, promote smoking cessation.
● Advise the client to use protective equipment (mask) and
ensure proper ventilation while working in environments that contain carcinogens or particles in the air.
● Encourage influenza and pneumonia vaccinations for older adults and all clients who have asthma.
● Instruct the client how to recognize and avoid triggering agents. Environmental factors, such as changes in temperature (especially warm to cold) and humidity. Air pollutants. Strong odors (perfume). Seasonal allergens (grass, tree, and weed pollens) and perennial allergens (mold, feathers, dust, roaches, animal dander, foods treated with sulfites). Stress and emotional distress. Medications (aspirin, NSAIDs, beta‑blockers, cholinergics). Enzymes, including those in laundry detergents. Chemicals (household cleaners). Sinusitis with postnasal drip. Viral respiratory tract infection
● Teach the client how to self‑administer
medications (nebulizers and inhalers).
● Educate the client regarding infection
● Encourage regular exercise as part of asthma therapy. Promotes ventilation and perfusion. Maintains cardiac health. Enhances skeletal muscle strength. Clients can require pre‑medication.
● Instruct the client to use hot water to eliminate dust mites in bed linens.
● Short‑acting beta2 agonists, such as albuterol, provide rapid relief of acute symptoms and prevent exercise‑induced asthma.
● Anticholinergic medications, such as ipratropium, block the parasympathetic nervous system. This allows for the sympathetic nervous system effects of increased bronchodilation and decreased pulmonary secretions. These medications are long‑acting and used to prevent bronchospasms.
● Methylxanthines, such as theophylline, require close monitoring of serum medication levels due to a narrow therapeutic range. Use only when other treatments are ineffective.
● Long‑acting beta2 agonists, such as salmeterol, primarily are used for asthma attack prevention.
● Albuterol: Watch for tremors and tachycardia.
● Ipratropium: Observe for dry mouth.
● Theophylline: Monitor serum levels for toxicity. Side effects include tachycardia, nausea, and diarrhea.
● Ipratropium: Advise the client to suck on hard candies to help relieve dry mouth; increase fluid intake; and report headache, blurred vision, or palpitations, which can indicate toxicity of ipratropium. Monitor heart rate.
● Salmeterol: Advise the client to use to prevent an asthma attack and not at the onset of an attack.