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Gravity
Terms in this set (38)
Equations of motion
v=u+at
v²-u²=2as
s=ut+½at²
Density or Mass density
Density or mass density of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the mass of the fluid to its volume.Unit-SI= kg/m3
The value of density of water is 1000 kg/m3
Buoyancy
When a body is immersed in a fluid, an upward force is exerted by the fluid on the body. This upward force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body and is called as force of buoyancy or simply buoyancy.
Bernoulli's equation
P+0.5
(density)
v^2) + (density)
gravity
height = constant
P=absolute pressure of the fluid
density=density of the fluid
v=velocity of the fluid
g=acceleration due to gravity
h=height of the fluid relative to some reference height
For a system in which you have constant height (when you look at two distinc points along the fluid flow), then Bernoulli's equation says that increased velocity means decreased pressure, and decreased velocity means increased pressure.
Strength
The strength of a material is its ability to sustain loads without undue distortion, collapse or rupture. A material should have adequate strength when subjected to tension, compression, shear, bending or torsion as per the intended use. For example, a beam of a building should have a proper bending strength, a column should have adequate compressive strength, a shaft of an automobile should have proper torsional strength. The maximum stress that any material will withstand is called ultimate strength or tenacity.
ELASTICITY
it is property of material by virtue of which It regains its original size and shape after deformation when the loads causing deformation are removed.
Plasticity
Lack of elasticity is called plasticity
Ductility
It is the property of a material to undergo a considerable deformation under tension before rupture. A body possessing ductility can be reduced from large sections to thinner and thinner sections i. e. it can be drawn into wires. This is tensile quality of a material.
Brittleness
Lack of ductility is called brittleness. The brittleness of a material is the property of breaking, fracturing or shattering without prior warning or without much permanent distortion under load. There are many materials which shatter before much deformation takes place. e. g. cast iron, glass, concrete, stone, etc. These materials are suitable for resisting compressive loads but usually less suitable for resisting tensile and Impact load. The compression test is generally performed for testing the brittleness of a material Brittleness is a compressive quality of a material.
Malleability
It is the property of a material by virtue of which it gets permanently deformed by compression without rupture. It is the ability of a material to be rolled or beaten up into thin sheets without cracking by rolling and hammering. This is also a compressive quality of a material. Gold is the most malleable of all metals.
Impact Strength
Energy required to fracture with a sudden force.
endurance limit
phenomenon of failure of a material under fluctuating or repeated loading is called fatigue or endurance. Fatigue fracture is progressive, and starts as minute cracks at the centres of stress concentration within the material or on the surface. These cracks go on extending more and more under the action of the fluctuating stresses causing the failure.
The maximum stress that a material can sustain without failure for a specific large number of cycles of stresses is known as its fatigue value or endurance limit.
Stiffness
The ability of a material to resist elastic deformation is called stiffness. Mathematically it is the load required to produce unit deformation. A material which deforms by a lesser amount under a given load possesses 'a high degree of stiffness. For identical cross sections, the stiffness is proportional to the modulus of elasticity.
Deformation
When an external force is applied to a body of an elastic material, there will be some change in its size and shape due to change in the dimensions of a body. This change in the size and shape of a body due to an externally applied load is called as deformation.
Elastic Body
A body which possesses the property of elasticity is called an elastic body.
A body is said to be elastic if it regains its original size and shape when on externally applied load causing deformation is entirely removed.
Plastic Body
If a body does not regain its original size and shape on the removal of an externally applied load and gets permanently deformed, it is called a plastic body.
Rigid Body
If a body does not undergo any deformation under the action of external loads, it is called a rigid body. The distance between any two particles of a rigid body remains unchanged even after applying an external load to it. Rigid body is an imaginary concept. In fact, no body is perfectly rigid.
Mass
Mass is quantity of matter contained in the body
weight = mass X gravitational acceleration = m X g = kg X m/sec2 = Newton.
Work
= Force X displacement = N.m. (or) Joule.
Power
= Power is rate of doing work.
Power= work/ time =(F X s) / t = (m X a X s) / t
power=N.m/sec.=joule/sec=watt
Energy
Capacity to work = N.m= Joule
K.E.= 1/2 mv2
P.E. = mgh
Law of conservation of energy
The energy can neither be created nor destroyed, though it can be transformed from one form to another form.
Momentum
= mass X velocity = kg.m/sec = N.sec.
Pressure
the force applied to a unit area of surface
units=
bar= 100 kPa = 105 N/m2
Pascal's Law
- It states that the pressure or intensity of pressure at a point in a static fluid is equal in all directions.
Force
- (f=ma , n,kg-m/s2)
A force may be defined as an external agency either pull or push which changes or tends to change the state of a body.
Force= mass X acceleration = kg X m/sec2
Law of parallelogram of forces
If two forces acting at and away from the point be represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the diagonal of the parallelogram passing through the point of intersection of the two forces represents their resultant in magnitude and direction.
Unit Newton force- Unit Newton force or 1 N force is that force which when acts on a body of mass 1 kg produces an acceleration of 1 m/sec2 in it.
1N= 1kg X 1 m/sec2
1 kgf=9.81N
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
Every body continues to be in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is acted upon by some external agency to change the state. This law is also sometime called as the law of Inertia.
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the unbalanced force acting on the body and takes place in the direction of the force.
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
To every action, there is always an equal and opposite reaction
Newton's Law of Gravitation
The force of attraction between any two bodies in universe is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them
Tensile force
The force which acts away from the point application is called tensile force pulling force or pull.
Compressive force
The force which acts towards the point of application is called compressive force pushing force or push.
Shear force
Force which acts parallel or tangential to the plane under consideration is called shear force, tangential force or shearing force.
FIT
When two parts are assembled, the relation resulting from the deference between their sizes before assembly is called fit.
TOLERANCE
Tolerance is defined as permissible variation in the dimension of the component.
UNILATERAL TOLERANCE-
In unilateral tolerance one tolerance is zero while the other takes care of all permissible variation in basic size
BILATERAL TOLERANCE-
In bilateral tolerance, the two tolerances are often equal, but this is not necessary condition
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