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Modern World History - Final Review
Terms in this set (296)
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
the everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard usage; opposed to Latin in the Renaissance
a machine used for printing using movable type printing press; invented by Johannes Gutenberg
an artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
justification by faith
Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation
John Calvin's doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs); founded by King Henry VIII in a split from the Catholic church
the first Protestant religion, based on Martin Luther's basic ideas about a Bible-based religion and justification by faith
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Group of people who wanted to "purify" the Church of England. They established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
Treaty of Tordesillas
Agreement that set trade boundaries for Spain and Portugal. Line of demarcation established - Spain got west of line, Portugal got east- through Brazil.
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
balance of trade
the difference in value over a period of time of a country's imports and exports of merchandise
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Pope Leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild St. Peters bascilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
He emphasized predestination and righteous living (high moral standards). He also set up a theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland (1536).
A Swiss religious and social reformer who led the Swiss reformation, rejected papal authority and orthodoxy; centered in Zurich, Switzerland; disagreed with Luther's Eucharist, thought it was more a symbolic memorial
King Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547 and founder of the Church of England; he broke with the Catholic Church because the pope would not grant him a divorce.
Pope Paul III
Most important pope in reforming the Church and challenging Protestantism. He sought to improve church disciple through existing doctrine, rather than making new ones; excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
The Italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of america as a new world. America is named after him
This was the first person to lead an expedition that circumnavigated the world
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean in the late 15th century
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Ptolemy's model of the universe with the Earth at the center
Copernicus' astronomical model in which the Earth rotates around the sun
models of the universe based on the assumption that the sun, moon, and planets all orbit Earth
a model of the solar system in which Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
Social critics of the eighteenth century who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
the branch of government that makes the laws
the branch of government that enforces and carries out the laws
the branch of government that interprets the laws and determines whether they are constitutional
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
the doctrine that states that government generally should not intervene in the marketplace; "hands off"
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
system in which rulers tried to govern by enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Parisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
A document, issued during the French Revolution that guaranteed certain human rights and other freedoms.
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus (2nd century AD)
Greek philosopher who proposed theories to explain many aspects of human behavior; supported the empiricist view that all knowledge comes from sensory experiences
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
Publicized Copernicus's findings; used the telescope to study moon and planets; added discoveries concerning the laws of gravity; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
an English philosopher and mathematician who discovered the laws of gravity and motion and is responsible for the mechanistic view of the universe.
a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy (1514-1564)
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood
Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements and chemical reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy (1627-1691)
Often known as the father of Chemistry. He proposed the Law of Conservation of mass and discovered some gasses.
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "i think therefore i am"; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"
Jean Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society; ideas influenced the French Revolution (1712-1778); believed in social contract for people to live in society pledging themselves to the general will of society
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
"Frederick The Great"-1712-1786;King of Prussia, aggressive in foreign affairs. Used military to increase power. Encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform.
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
most aggressive reformer of his era; radical royal reformer of Austria; introduced legal reforms, freedom of the press, supported freedom of worship (even Protestants, Orthodox Christians, and Jews); abolished serfdom and ordered that peasants be paid for their labor with cash; most of his reforms were undone after his death
King George III
king of England during the American Revolution
King Louis XVI
King of France from 1774 to 1792; his unpopular policies helped trigger the French Revolution. He was executed by guillotine.
Queen of France, wife to King Louis XVI; she was queen during the French Revolution and was disliked by many French citizens. She was found guilty of treason and guillotine.
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror
Jean Paul Marat
One of the prominent radical leaders during the revolution. He edited a radical newspaper. He called to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
system bringing manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Energy produced from falling water to move machinery or generate electricity.
steam-engines burned coal to to boil water and create steam, which drove mechanical devices that performed work; replaced water power because it was more controllable and more powerful, as well as being possible to locate factories away from running water
a textile machine for weaving yarn into a textile
germ theory of disease
idea that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, or germs
partial sterilization of foods at a temperature that destroys harmful microorganisms without major changes in the chemistry of the food
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
a telegraph code in which letters and numbers are represented by strings of dots and dashes (short and long signals)
electronic equipment that converts sound into electrical signals that can be transmitted over distances and then converts received signals back into sounds; invented by Alexander Graham Bell
economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference
system of society where all people are in the middle class - no one is exceptionally wealthy, but everyone is provided for; a goal of socialists and communists
the social class between the lower and upper classes
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
Second Industrial Revolution
Steep growth in industry and the production of steel, petrolium, electric power, and the machinery to produce other goods
energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor; replaced steam power in the Second Industrial Revolution
A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
early labor organizations that brought together workers in the same trade, or job, to fight for better wages and working conditions
process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
an intensely radioactive metallic element that occurs in minute amounts in uranium ores; discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie
theory of relativity
(physics) the theory that space and time are relative concepts rather than absolute concepts
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
policy of powerful countries seeking to control the economic and political affairs of weaker countries or regions; European program of domination over southeast Asia and Africa
Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe
System of colonial government in which the imperialist power controlled all levels of government and appointed its own officials to govern the colony.
Colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization; discovered the germ theory of disease
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Invented the telegraph which allowed faster communication over longer distances. He also developed Morse code
Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
Alexander Graham Bell
He was an American inventor who was responsible for developing the telephone
invented the wireless telegraph; , sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Worked with Karl Marx to develop Marxism, and helped write a couple of books that outlined the ideals of Marxism and communism, and how the world will advance toward it.
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
William Graham Sumner
Intellectual defender of laissez-faire capitalism who argued that the wealthy owed "nothing" to the poor.
Marie and Pierre Curie
Marie (1867-1934) a polish born physicist, and her husband Pierre discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles, which means it doesn't have a constant weight.
physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis.
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
a major cause of WWI. two alliances formed in WWI: the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria, Italy) and the Triple Entente (France, England, Russia) because France was against Germany and they both needed support. First France aligned with Russia, on the other side of Germany, so Germany aligned with German-speaking Austria. Both sides wanted Britain for their industrial economy, but Britain was afraid of Germany gaining power and so aligned with France.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
GB, France, Russia were the major powers of this alliance in fighting in WWI
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Territory between rival Trenches, very dangerous
a new invention in WWI - a yellow colored gas that was fired at the enemy - it caused blindness, damage to the lungs and death
cannons used to fire explosive shells
cloth strip made of wool and wrapped around the leg, from ankle to knee, to prevent trousers from being torn, getting dirty, or water from getting in
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. The Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
Russian councils composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in World War I.
the state of not taking sides, especially in a war or dispute
unrestricted submarine warfare
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
Passenger-liner sunk in March 1916 by Germany. This led Wilson to break diplomatic relations with Germany if they did not comply with his commands.
A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.
A secret document to Mexico that said Germany would help them regain lost territories in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they joined the war on the Central Powers side
November 11, 1918; Germany signed an armistice (an agreement to stop fighting); this US holiday is now known as Veterans Day
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
The right of people to choose their own form of government
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
a general and progressive increase in prices
purchasing stock with borrowed money
Italian political party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943.
Members of Italian fascists before WWII. It was led by Mussolini. Helped solidify Mussolini's control
a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism)
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
The political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933.
Beer Hall Putsch
In 1923 the Nazis attempted to overthrow the government in Munich. It was a total failure, and Hitler received a brief prison sentence during which time he wrote Mein Kampf.
Book writen by Hitler where he outlines his beliefs: Germans are a superior race, The Treaty of Versailles treated Germany unfairly and that a crowed Germany needed the lands of Eastern Europe and Russia
the parliament of Germany before 1945 (and the name of its building)
a German Prime Minister
The Reichstag building (where the German Parliament was located) was set on fire; fire was blamed on communists, getting more people to support Hitler's Nazi party instead of choosing communists
enabled Hitler to get rid of the Reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
Manfred von Richthofen
a German fighter pilot known as "The Red Baron"
France's premier ace with 75 kills in WWI
Canada's most famous flying ace during World War One. He had 72 victories.
the most decorated United States combat pilot in World War I (1890-1973)
Czar Nicholas II
Russian Czar during WWI; unpopular with Russian people; overthrown in March 1917; executed by Bolsheviks after November Revolution (1917)
Siberian peasant monk who was religious advisor in the court of Nicholas II
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
German minister whose famous telegram was responsible for drawing the US into WWI
After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
King Victor Emmanuel III
The king of Italy at the time of Mussolini- gave him dictatorial powers for one year to end nation's social unrest
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
Paul von Hindenberg
German President 1925-1934, allowed Hitler to become Chancellor
hatred, prejudice, oppression, or discrimination against Jews or Judaism.
prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.
in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland
France, Britain, USSR, United States, and China as well as 45 other countries that opposed the Axis powers in World War II
"Lighting war", type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939 and Western Europe in 1940
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. Japanese-Americans faced this in WWII because of concerns of espionage activities
date of the Pearl Harbor attack
Battle of Britain
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Date of D-Day.
the organized killing of European Jews and others by the Nazis during WWII
the name for the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
the date of "V-E Day"
stragety of Allies in World War 2 of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others
a former United States executive agency that was responsible for developing atomic bombs during World War II
bomb dropped by an American bomber on Hiroshima and Nagasaki destroying both cities
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II
Japanese city on which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945.
date of V-J Day
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
trials similar to the Nuremberg Trials to try leaders of wartime Japan
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
A Jewish state on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, both in antiquity and again founded in 1948 after centuries of Jewish diaspora.
Region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the Jews; sight of the establishment of the Israeli state
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany (1869-1940)
French Radical politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. Appeased Chamberlain in Munich and let Germany have Sudetenland.
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Elected for president 4 times, lead country through Great Depression and WW 2, ushered the 'New Deal program to help people struggling from
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Head of the Nazi German Luftwaffe; highest Nazi official tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg Trials
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Communist nations in Eastern Europe on friendly terms with the USSR and thought of as under the USSR's control
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Soviets closed off land access to Berlin
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain including USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
U-2 Spy Incident
incident where American pilot was shot down and captured during a spying mission over the Soviet Union; caused an increase in tension in the relations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
One thousand more times more powerful than the atomic bomb. Truman ordered the development of it to outpace the Soviets.
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
this was launched by the USSR with a dog in it to prove that living things could live outside earth's orbit; second artificial satellite
1st U.S. satellite launched into space; Nov., 1958
A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration; , Formed to create satellites and missiles to compete with the USSR after Sputnik.
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
This gave the president authority to take "all neccessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States" in Vietnam
A group of Communist guerrillas who, with the help of North Vietnam, fought against the South Vietnamese government in the Vietnam War.
An organization of Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups that between 1946 and 1954 fought for Vietnamese independence from the French
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Highly flammable chemical dropped from US planes in firebombing attacks during the Vietnam War.
Chemical agents such as Agent Orange that cause leaves to fall from the trees and so make hidden troops more visible from the air
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968 during the Lunar New Year of Tet
Operation Rolling Thunder
bombing campaign over North Vietnam, supposed to weaken enemy's ability and will to fight
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Invasion of Afghanistan
Soviets tried to invade Afghanistan; like the U.S. in Vietnam, the Soviets were facing mountainous guerrilla warfare and eventually were forced to retreat.
Stategic Defensive Initiative
proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan in March 1983 to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
British statesman and leader of the Labour party who instituted the welfare state in England (1883-1967)
United States general and statesman who as Secretary of State organized the European Recovery Program (1880-1959) or Marshall Plan
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong; he was unsuccessful and eventually fled to Taiwan
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany; president of the United States from 1953-1961; issued the Eisenhower Doctrine and professed massive retaliation against the USSR in the Cold War
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation; however, he was involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis
Francis Gary Powers
a U-2 pilot who's plane was shot down by a Soviet pilot. Sentenced to ten years in prison
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
John F. Kennedy
President during Bay of Pigs, and Cuban Missile Crisis.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, French, and Americans
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnamese president that was Catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom
the US president who privately wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of communism
he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
President, 1981-1989, who led a conservative movement against détente with the Soviet Union and the growth of the federal government; some people credit him with America's victory in the Cold War while others fault his insensitive social agenda and irresponsible fiscal policies.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations.
Reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle east against attack by any Communist country
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