S.P. Ch. 4
Terms in this set (24)
We are making evaluations and judgements perpetually
When we encounter new people, new food, new music we have to make judgements to decide whether we like things or not
Attitudes are largely learned, we develop attitudes as we experience things in the world (not really involved with biology or genes, although temperament may influence your attitudes towards things)
Therefore, if you can learn them, you can change them overtime
Explain the Tripartite view of attitudes
Cognitive component: Thoughts and beliefs about the attitude object
Emotional reaction toward the attitude object
Observable actions toward the attitude object
Are the three components highly correlated?
The three components do not have to be correlated and do not have to align (cognitively I know cockroaches are harmless, but when I see them I scream, behaviorally I run away or get someone else to kill it)
Sometimes they do (loving cake, all is consistent)
The 3 components do not come from the same source (cognitive from school, documentary,/ emotional reaction comes from personal experiences/
Just because we change one of the three components doesn't mean we see changes in the other two components (documentary shows how good cockroaches are for the environment, are actually sweet creatures) but you still don't like them and they gross you out, you will still scream when one is flying around towards you
Are we consciously aware of our own attitudes?
Social psychologists recognize that attitudes exist at different levels. Explicit attitudes: people are aware of and can consciously report (I hate cockaroaches, like bunnies, can report on questionairre) / Implicit attitudes: feelings about certain things that are outside of our conscious awareness, therefore we cannot report them (where people say they are not racist, but then in an actual situation they do have some racial bias)
Do attitudes predict behavior?
Attitudes DON'T always predict behavior very well. Early social psychologists assumed that if you measure someones attitudes you can predict behavior.
What is the point in studying attitudes if you can't predict what they do? But your behavior is being affected by your IMPLICIT attitudes not EXPLICIT attitudes, therefore attitudes exist at different levels and how can we refine these measurements and theories
Explain predicting spontaneous behavior
Attitudes predict spontaneous behavior when they are accessible
People have better attitude accessibility when they are self aware (thinking of themselves) also the attitudes you feel very passionately about. Priming (making the thought front and center) can also affect this and determine what kind of behavior will come out of it.
Spontaneous (chinese couple comes into restaurant, they are seated and accepted)
Deliberate (letter comes in the mail and asks the restaurant if the chinese people can come, they said no after all)
Explain predicting deliberate behavior
Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)
The best predictor of one's behavior is his/her intention to perform that behavior
Intentions are determined by:
Outcome expectancy x outcome evaluation (favorability)
Others' attitudes x motivation to comply with others
Explain the Theory of Reasoned Action
This theory is the most complete theory that links attitudes to behavior / centers around the construct named "behavior intention" : a plan to engage in some kind of behavior (closest predictor of future behavior)
Outcome expectancy and outcome evaluation (favorability)
If you are trying to figure out if someone is going to get a Flu shot=
You don't get the flue (outcome) X pretty good (favorability) = attitude toward getting the flu shot
Social aspect comes in: people's beliefs of what other important people to you would expect from you (combined with your motivation to comply with their wishes)
Explain why the Theory of Reasoned Action is not a dual processes model
Is this a dual-process model? Why or why not? NO - assumes rationality, forethought. Nothing akin to the experiential route.
Overall, TRA has received a great deal of empirical support - e.g., Seatbelt use, exercise. But critics point out that this model is really only appropriate for deliberate behavior (not impulsive beh).
When is predicting behavior from attitudes more successful?
People are not motivated to misreport their attitudes
Measures of attitudes are behavior-specific
Behavior is aggregated over time and across situation
(Asking a person how often they have gone to church within the last three months may be better in determining the likelihood of the person going to church)
Explain the Elaboration Likelihood Model
Basic assumption: we do not carefully evaluate every argument or message that we encounter
The amount and nature of the thinking (elaboration) that follows a persuasive message determines whether it results in lasting attitude change
ELM: mentally elaborating on ideas (thinking critically, questioning, listening carefully) / this behavior determines if attitude changes at all and if so, how robust does this new attitude change/develop
Explain the two routes to persuasion
Central route - processing the persuasive communication carefully (listening, evaluating the arguments, etc.)
Peripheral route - being swayed by simple cues that are not central to the arguments
Peripheral cues: anything other than the actual arguments themselves (persuaded by the fact that the speaker who is trying to persuade you seems like an expert and knows what they are talking about)
What variable influence persuasion?
ELM: recognizing that any given factor (recipeint, audience, something about the message itself) can affect the way you are influenced
May encourage them to think more or inhibit you thinking more
Influence how confident you feel about certain beliefs (some variables make you feel more confident, perceived validity may increase or decrease)
Explain variables concerned with the audience and elaborate on them
Time: People won't process info via the central route if they don't have the time to think carefully (if speaker talk too fast the message is too long to process)
Ability: People won't process info via the central route if they don't have the ability to think carefully (distracted, tired, issue is too complex)
Involvement: The more involved a person is (engaged in the arguments, listening, etc.), the more likely he/she is to use the central route
Relevance: People are more likely to process messages via the central route when the issue is personally relevant
Explain the audience in terms of the need for cognition
Need for cognition: Motivation to think and analyze
Extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities
People high in need for cognition are more likely to change attitudes via the central route
People low in need for cognition are more likely to change attitudes via the peripheral route
Describe the source and the importance of credibility
Credibility: perceived expertise and trustworthiness
When people are using the peripheral route, they're more likely to change their attitude based on source credibility (rather than the message)
When people are using the central route, they may disregard the source (focus on the message only) or scrutinize the source along with the message
Describe the source and the importance of attractiveness
Attractiveness: Having qualities that appeal to the audience
(Physical attractiveness/ Similarity to the audience)
Can open people up to central route processing, but more likely to be a peripheral cue
Explain message and the importance of its length
Message length: Can be a peripheral cue when elaboration likelihood is low
Heuristic: longer messages are stronger
When elaboration likelihood is high, the length of the message is less influential
Elaborate on emotion-based messages
Positive emotions tend to induce peripheral route processing
Emotions as heuristic: Feel good favorable attitude
Negative moods tend to induce central route processing
Moods can bias our thought processes, be evaluated as evidence, and influence our attitude confidence
Happy people don't want to think about anything too deep (peripheral) because it may dampen their mood
However, your good mood may become associated to the stimuli you are exposed to and induce a favorable attitude
People in a happy or angry mood feel more confident about an attitude/ sad mood makes your attitude more doubtful
Explain the consequences of different persuasion processes
Central route - resulting attitudes are more persistent (tend to endure over time), more resistant to change, more predictive of behavior
Peripheral route - resulting attitudes are less persistent (fade over time, easier to change (future persuasion attempts), less predictive of behavior
Explain ELM in a nutshell
When elaboration is low, persuasion tends to occur (if at all) due to the effects of peripheral cues.
When elaboration is high, persuasion tends to occur (if at all) due to carefully thinking about the arguments.
Many variables influence persuasion through multiple roles (different effects depending on elaboration likelihood)
Central route processing tends to produce stronger, more enduring attitudes
Explain the results of Whittler & Spira and how it relates to ELM
Results are consistent with the Elaboration Likelihood Model/Social Categorization Theory.
High Identifying Blacks favored advertisements and product more when the model was black.
Black viewers processed the messaging differently when there was a Black model in the advertisement. A model's race functioned in this experiment as a peripheral cue in an advertising setting
What did Breckler (1984) find in his study concerning the three components of attitude?
The results from the study (which examined participants attitudes towards snakes) indicated that affect, behavior, and cognition are distinguishable components of attitude. Correlations among these three components were moderate, suggesting the practical importance of discriminating among them. Thus attitude researchers are advised either to measure each of the three components or to specify which of the three is of focal concern. To say a researcher is measuring "attitude" is ambiguous because it does not specify which of the three components is being measured.
What is the Hebrew aphorism concerning understanding behavior?
"Is not a flower a mystery no flower can explain?"