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PATIENT CARE MEDICAL EMERGENCIES
Terms in this set (23)
What are the most vital aspects when interacting with patients?
Observing and Communicating
What does the Glasgow Coma Scale assess?
This scale addresses 3 areas of neurological functioning and it gives an overview of the patients responsiveness
The body's pathological reaction to illness, trauma, or severe physiologic or emotional stress. This may be caused by body fluid loss, cardiac failure, decreased tone of the blood vessels or obstruction of blood flow to vital organs.
___________ ___________ depend on oxygen/nutrients supplied by the blood
Symptoms of the compensatory stage
Cold/clammy skin, urine output decreases, respiration increases, bowel sounds hypoactive, blood pressure normal, and anxiety levels increase
Symptoms of the progressive Stage
Blood pressure falls, respirations rapid and shallow, pulmonary edema, tachycardia, patient complaint of chest pain, mental status change, Renal/hepatic/gastrointestinal/ hematologic problems occur
What occurs in the irreversible stage of shock?
Organ systems suffer irreparable damage, blood pressure remains low, renal and liver failure, and the release of necrotic tissue toxins resulting in an overwhelming lactic acidosis
What are the 3 classifications of shock?
Hypovolemic, Cariogenic, and distributive or vasogenic
When does hypovolemic shock occur?
When the amount of intravascular fluid decreases by 15% to 25% or by a loss of 750-1300 ml, hypovolemic shock occurs
What might a decrease of intravascular be due to?
internal or external hemorrhage, loss of plasma form burns, or fluid loss from prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, or medications
What is cariogenic shock cause by?
It is caused by a failure of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to vital organs
What is obstructive shock?
This results from pathological conditions that interfere with normal pumping action of the heart, although the heart may be free of pathologic conditions
What is a pulmonary embolus?
A pulmonary embolus is an accession of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus or thrombi
What is distributive shock?
Blood pooling occurs in vessels which results in decreased blood pressure, and decreased tissue perfusion....characterized by blood vessels inability to constrict and their resultant inability to assist in the return of blood to the heart
What is the loss of sympathetic tone causing vasodilation of peripheral vessels?
Neurogenic distributive shock
What shock is caused by Gram-negative bacteria organism?
Septic distributive shock
This type of shock is vasogenic shock and is most common in the departmnet due to donated contrast media. It is the result of an exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction to an exposure or re-exposure to an antigen that was previously encountered by the bodies immune system.
What is a necessary responsibility of the radiographer before administering contrast?
To obtain a complete medical history prior to administration of iodinated contrast agents such as food allergies, medication allergies, previous incidents with contrast agents
What are the mild symptoms of a systemic reaction to contrast?
Nasal congestion, periodical swelling, itching, sneezing, tingling or itching at the site on injection
What are moderate systemic reactions to contrast?
All symptoms listed for mild reactions with rapid onset, flushing, feeling warm, itching, urticaria, bronchospasm, and edema of the airway or larynx, dyspnea, cough, wheezing, feeling a fullness or tightness of the chest mouth or throat
What are the symptoms of severe systemic reactions to contrast?
All symptoms listed for mild and moderate but with an abrupt onset, decreased B/P, Weak thready pulse, severe dyspnea, cyanosis, dysphagia, abdominal cramping, vomiting, diarrhea, seizures, respiratory and cardiac arrest
What are the medications for anaphylactic shock?
Epinephrine, Diphenhydramine, Hydrocortisone, Aminophylline.
What is the radiographer responsible for if the patient experiences an anaphylactic shock?
The radiographer is responsible for putting a sticker stating: allergy reaction on the patients x-ray jacket or documenting it in the PACS system
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