Vaughn Chapter 8

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Terms in this set (...)

What are Africa's savannas?
grassy plains
What Roman emporer made Christianity the official religion of Rome?
Theodosius
What was the way of life of Africa's earliest people?
hunter-gatherers
What was West Africa's earliest known culture?
The Nok
What are push-pull factors?
Reasons for migration
What cause of migration was the Bantu-speaking people's migration most likely an example of?
Environmental change
Sahara
a large desert in Northern Africa
Sahel
The Southern edge of the Sahara desert
savanna
grassy plains
animism
A religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life (spirits present in animals)
griot
storytellers
Nok
West Africa's earliest known culture
Djenne-Djeno
The oldest known city in Africa south of the sahara
What are four general vegetation types found in Africa?
rainforest, savanna, desert, and Mediterranean
What is the main source of information about early African cultures?
artifacts such as pottery, charcoal, and slag (waste product of working with iron)
How is the African iron age different from that in other regions?
They skipped copper and bronze ages
Why did diverse cultures develop in Africa?
They had a nomadic lifestyle (lived in tribes)
How did agriculture change the ways Africans lived?
Build permanent shelters, longer lives, increased birth rate, people could work with metal, pottery, jewelry
What evidence shows that Djenne-Djeno was a major trading city in west Africa
Artifacts including pottery, copper hair ornaments, clay toys, glass beads, etc
In what ways were the cultures of Djenne-Djeno and Nok alike?
Both lived near Niger river; both smelt iron
Why were griots important to African societies?
Kept history alive
Why might Africans continue living in a nomadic lifestyle?
The land is not good for farming so they keep having to move
What is special about geography of Africa
Large, but few ports
What makes the environment challenging?
Deserts and rainforests (hard to farm)
migration
A permanent move from one country or region to another
push-pull factors
Factors that can push people out of an area or pull them into an area
Bantu-speaking peoples
People who lived in the savanna south of the Sahara and migrated south; one of the largest migrations in history
What are push-pull factors in migration?
Environmental, economic, and political
What are 3 effects of migration?
(1) change population density; (2) cultural blending of languages/cultures; (3) ideas and technologies shared; (4) quality of life improved; (5) clashes between groups can create war; (6) environmental conditions may change; (7) unemployment/poverty
Into which regions of Africa did the Bantu-speaking migration move?
Moved from savanna under Sahara desert to southern regions of Africa
How can the effects of one migration become the cause of another migration?
Use up resources, cause unemployment, war, etc so then people in the area they migrated to leave
How did the Bantu migration change the history of Africa?
Shared ideas about social and political organizations
How did the Bantu deal with the problems they encountered in their migration?
They kept moving southward
Which of the effects of migration do you think are most negative?
War
Aksum
A kingdom that took over Kush, located on a rugged plateau on the Red Sea
Adullis
Aksum's chief seaport
Ezana
The strongest ruler of Aksum, brought Christianity
terraces
step-like ridges constructed on mountain slopes that they farmed on
How did Aksum's location make it a trade city?
Has access to the Red Sea, Mediterranean, Arabian peninsula, interior of Africa, Indian Ocean, and Egypt
Why did the people of Aksum become Christians?
Ezana brought Christianity
Why did Aksum's leader move their capital?
Islamic (Muslims) invaders (had to move over the mountains)
How did Aksum's location and interaction with other regions affect its development?
Influences from Mediterranean countries, Arabs, Persia, etc.
Why did the kingdom of Aksum decline?
Islamic invaders
What impact did Ezana's decision to become a Christian have on the kingdom of Aksum?
Became official religion of the kingdom
How did the Muslim conquest of African affect the kingdom of Aksum?
Isolation in the mountains, no more forest, and soil erosion (i.e., they moved to the mountains and bad environment so declined)
What conditions led to Aksums becoming Christian?
Their ruler was Christian
Why don't the traders speak to each other instead of laying down goods or gold?
They don't speak the same languages