15 terms

Biology: 2A (in progress)

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Define genes
A section of DNA that controls a certain trait (ex. eye color, blood type, skin color).
Define alleles
A specific variation of a gene (ex. Blue eyes, green eyes, type A blood, black skin, white skin)
Define phenotype
The physical characteristics of an organism (ex. tall or short).
Define genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism. What alleles are on a chromosome (ex. TT, Tt, and tt).
Mendel's Principle of Dominance
The principle is that if one gene of a pair is dominant and the other is recessive, the dominant gene exerts its effect, overriding the potential influence of the recessive gene.
Pea plants and Mendel's Principle of Dominance
Mendel's Principle of Dominance is that if one gene of a pair is dominant and the other is recessive, the dominant gene exerts its effect, overriding the potential influence of the recessive gene. For example, if a wrinkled green pea is dominant over the recessive smooth yellow pea and the two peas produce offspring, a smooth yellow pea won't appear in the next generation because the wrinkled green pea is masking its effects.
Incomplete Dominance vs. Codominance
Incomplete dominance is when a 3rd phenotype is present in both alleles (ex. when a red and white flower produces a green flower).

Codominance is when both alleles are expressed (ex. when a red and white flower produce a flower with both red and white in it).
Antigens and Antibodies in Type A-Blood
A antigens, B antibodies
Antigens and Antibodies in Type B-Blood
B antigens, A antibodies
Antigens and Antibodies in Type AB-Blood
A and B antigens, no antibodies
Antigens and Antibodies in Type O-Blood
No antigens, A and B antibodies
What is the universal donor blood type?
Type-O Blood because it has neither A or B antigens on the surface of its red blood cells. This means that other blood types have no antibodies to reject type O.
What is the universal receiver blood type?
Type-AB is the universal recipient because it produces no antibodies, which prevents it from attacking transfused blood that may have A or B antigens.
Define recessive
a gene or allele whose phenotype expression is masked by a dominant allele.
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
During Meiosis II As the 2 diploid cells split into 4 haploid cells, there are 4 possibilities for a gene to be passed on to each haploid cell. Each gene can take its own path to any haploid cell thus being assorted independently of each other.
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