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44 terms

Fuggi Applied Biology Final Review

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selectively permeable membranes
allow only certain substances to diffuse across them
plant cell
has chloroplasts and a cell wall
autotroph
able to make its own food for energy
light
used by plant cells to make sugar for food
glucose and oxygen
final products of photosynthesis
genetics
the branch of biology that involves the study of how different traits are transmitted from one generation to the next; scientific study of heredity
recessive trait
represented by a lower case letter
homozygous
two of the same alleles for a particular trait
phenotype
determines the physical appearance of an organism
dominant allele
represented by a capital letter
alleles
the different forms of a gene, the factors that control a trait
pedigree
a chart that tracks family traits, using squares to represent males and circles to represent females
cells
the smallest units of life in all living things
cell membrane
structure that regulates what enters and leaves the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
organelle that helps maintain homeostasis by moving supplies from one part of the cell to the other
ribosomes
proteins are made here
golgi apparatus
packaging and distribution center of the cell
nuclear membrane
membrane surrounding the nucleus
mitochondria
produces energy
chloroplasts
associated with photosynthesis
vacuoles
large spaces in which water, waste products and nutrients are stored
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
organization of structures in living things from simplest to most complex
cell wall
protects the cell and maintains its shape
photosynthesis
process whereby plants capture the sun's energy and make glucose
chlorophyll
looks green due to the green wavelengths of light that are reflected
oxygen
the major atmospheric byproduct of photosynthesis
autotrophs
organisms that make their own food
heterotrophs
organisms that cannot make their own food and must obtain energy from the foods they eat
alcoholic fermentation
process that takes place when glucose is broken down in the absence of oxygen and that makes bread rise
cellular respiration
releases energy and uses the raw materials of glucose and oxygen as reactants
prophase
first phase of mitosis
gametes
produced during meiosis
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
heterozygous
represented by one capital letter and one lower case letter
genotype
an organisms genetic makeup or allele combinations
punnett square
a diagram used to determine the probable outcome of genetic crosses
karyotype
a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
sex chromosomes
the pair of chromosomes that determine wheter a person is male or female, represented "X" and "Y"
XX
female
XY
male
pedigree
a family tree that shows the occurrence of a trait
sex-linked trait
a gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome
flower
part of the plant where reproduction takes place
anther
part of the flower where pollen grains are produced