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selectively permeable membranes

allow only certain substances to diffuse across them

plant cell

has chloroplasts and a cell wall


able to make its own food for energy


used by plant cells to make sugar for food

glucose and oxygen

final products of photosynthesis


the branch of biology that involves the study of how different traits are transmitted from one generation to the next; scientific study of heredity

recessive trait

represented by a lower case letter


two of the same alleles for a particular trait


determines the physical appearance of an organism

dominant allele

represented by a capital letter


the different forms of a gene, the factors that control a trait


a chart that tracks family traits, using squares to represent males and circles to represent females


the smallest units of life in all living things

cell membrane

structure that regulates what enters and leaves the cell

endoplasmic reticulum

organelle that helps maintain homeostasis by moving supplies from one part of the cell to the other


proteins are made here

golgi apparatus

packaging and distribution center of the cell

nuclear membrane

membrane surrounding the nucleus


produces energy


associated with photosynthesis


large spaces in which water, waste products and nutrients are stored

cells, tissues, organs, organ systems

organization of structures in living things from simplest to most complex

cell wall

protects the cell and maintains its shape


process whereby plants capture the sun's energy and make glucose


looks green due to the green wavelengths of light that are reflected


the major atmospheric byproduct of photosynthesis


organisms that make their own food


organisms that cannot make their own food and must obtain energy from the foods they eat

alcoholic fermentation

process that takes place when glucose is broken down in the absence of oxygen and that makes bread rise

cellular respiration

releases energy and uses the raw materials of glucose and oxygen as reactants


first phase of mitosis


produced during meiosis


the passing of traits from parents to offspring


represented by one capital letter and one lower case letter


an organisms genetic makeup or allele combinations

punnett square

a diagram used to determine the probable outcome of genetic crosses


a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs

sex chromosomes

the pair of chromosomes that determine wheter a person is male or female, represented "X" and "Y"


a family tree that shows the occurrence of a trait

sex-linked trait

a gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome


part of the plant where reproduction takes place


part of the flower where pollen grains are produced

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