Terms in this set (73)
The nature of dominate-minority group relations at any point in time is largely a function of.....
The situation of a minority group will reflect the realities of everyday...
the characteristics of the society as a whole.
social life and particularly the subsistence technology
You can gauge the health of any society by...
looking at the minority
How society takes care of people
The subsistence techonoly of a society acts as a....
foundation, shaping and affecting every other aspect of the social structure, including minority group relations.
A bad foundation can...
ruin a society
Noel Hypothesis 1968 states:
If two or more groups come together in a contact situation characterized by...
ethnocentrism, competition, and a differential in power, then some form of racial or ethnic stratification will result.
If the contact situation has all...
three characteristics, some dominant-minority group structure will be created.
Differential of Power
-Believe you are best; Group boundaries establishes ("who" to dominate)
-What do other groups have that you want to dominate; Motivation to establish superiority ("why" dominate)
-Dominate group imposes its will on minority group ("how" to dominate)
All three characteristics together lead to
-Also to Inequality and Institutionalized Discrimination
-Prejudice and Racism
in the laws and customs
***Ossified like bone
LOOK AT POWERPOINT FOR CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTACT SITUATION
Blauner Hypothesis (1972) identified two different initial relationships:
And hypothesizes that:
-more intense prejudice, racism, & discrimination
-people had their culture ripped from them
----now don't have culture yet never accepted into dominate culture
-it persists longer & can be more difficult to overcome
Why were NA not indentures as servants or slaves on a regular basis?
ethnocentrism Competition Power
White servants Y Y N
NA Y Y N
Black Servants Y Y Y
Native Americans & the Noel Hypothesis
Differential in Power/
-Thinking you're better than someone else
-Competing for something (resource)
-/Superior technology/Cultural Individualism (gun power & U.S. Army) ***Differences in power
Native Americans & the Blauner Hypothesis
-NA were a colonized minority group
-----high prejudice, racism, & discrimination
-Life African Americans, they were controlled by paternalistic systems (Reservations or Slavery for Africans)
The white standard was...
-Tutanic people (northern european people)
----Ranked people and put themselves at the top
Prevention & Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Article 2 states: In the present convention, genocide means ANY of the following acts committed with intent to...
5 things (only one has to happen)
destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial or religious group as such:
A. Killing members of the group
B. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group
C. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part
D. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group
E. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group
Okay by dominate group to do to other
3 stages to Sanctioned Massacre
Someone has to authorize it
-Verbally, writer, or implied
Only know your own individualize job in the situation
Dehumanization of the people targeted; their identity and community stripped
-Now just a group of people
-God's will that we will conquer
-Europeans attitude when they came over
-It took Europeans, disease, & guns less than 300 years to destroy a way of life that had been surviving for over 20,000 years
Their frame of society mind....
What should we do about the Indian problem?
-Media, congress, settles, business owners, president all contribute
-They had boys 4&5 years old signing treaties by putting an X on the line and getting candy in return
-Limited NA and gave gov't power
-Congress changed treaties w/o permission of NA
talks about NA tribes as a nation
-First (of 6) prohibition trade & intercourse acts
-----NA on US soil can only trade with the US
-Prohibited ceding of land
-Now office of Indian affairs is created
-End tribal sovereignty in NA territory
-----Can't make own decisions
First Thanksgiving Feast
-June 21, 1621
-Celebrate survival of winter & invited NA
-Held by colonist not to give thanks to NA but thanks to God because they are the superior race & he got them through the winter
-He worked in Spain & England
-Helped most colonists and taught them how to survive
Sakakawea- Bird Woman
-1790 to 1812 or 1884??
-Thought is she died young
-Shoshone by birth
-Lewis & Clark expeditions 1805-1806
----She was 16 & had 6 mo baby (Little Pomp)
She was important to...
young girls & NA history
-Married to French trapper
-They arrived in Oregon: they would vote on what they were doing & allowed her to vote w/ them
American Revolutionary War
Civil War in the United States
NA on the side of the British
----Thought was to get rid of the Americans so they can have their land back
NA became more intense in their fighting against enroachment
Northern Pacific Railroad
-West states: 1850-1,276 miles of railroad
1890-62,394 miles of railroad
Col. Patrick Connor & California Volunteers
-----Answer was to kill them all
He would ride on trains & kill buffalo
-Gov't encouraged this
-----give $10 for everyone buffalo head
-Impacted NA because of all the waste there was and buffalo were a huge part of their culture
Mass slaughter of Buffalo
By the end of the 1800's less than 100 buffalo left
Scorched Earth Policy
-Decided to just burn everything
---Kit Carson's idea
-Plan was to get rid of everything the NA depended on
-seemed like a friendly trader
-good relationship with NA at first
-$10 for every scalp
-Introduced by Europeans to the NA
New United States federal policy of Assimilation and Civilization
-Take the culture out of the NA children but yet never accept them into dominate while culture
-Boarding school area
-Christianity: had to learn songs & bible
-Hair & clothing: western clothing; military uniforms for boys; cut their hair (only did if in mourning or to an enemy)
-Language: Can't speak their own language
-Gender-hierarchical based training: Males better than female's
The boarding schools would
"kill the Indian...
take away their culture, spirituality, & traditions
-children were forced to go
-----"exotic Indian children"
save the man"
-They will never be equal but try to get them as close as you can
Captain R.H. Pratt
-took before and after photos of children
-"Savior" "Man of the Grandstand"
Most NA children from the Dakotas went to...
Carlisle Industrial School
-Loaning NA children to businesses & farmers as free labor; they were forced to sign a contract
-After boarding school, they lost connection to tribe & most refused to take them back
send letters home
went along with the school but tried to sneak away to practice their traditions
Carlisle School Cemetery
-Abuse & Disease is how they died
-13 no name: claimed to be babies of girls who were raped
George Custer's Expedition
Expansion of the "West"
- 1874; looking to set-up military places but really looking for gold
-Getting people from east to west
Sacred Black Hills
-Paha (black hills) Sapa (from a distance)
----NA see this as up close & personal
Fort Laramie Treaty of
1868: gave Lakota Sioux the black hills
-Red cloud agreed people went to reservations
-If the Lakota caused any war the treaty was void
in 1877 they NA were....
forced to give their land back
-they found gold & uranium so the US wanted the land back
-US threatened to kill all their people if they didn't give the land back
Crazy horse said
-NA tribes received spiritual messages & gifts
-Chiefs would go
-Similar to Mount Siani
You cannot sell the land which people walk on
-he was brilliant military strategist
---Greasy grass fight; little big horn
George Armstrong Custer
-June 25, 1876: little big horn
-Never actually a general only a Coln.
-Announced he would take care of the Indians
-Wanted to be president
Events leading up to wounded knee
-Crazy horse killed
-Sitting bulls death
-L. Frank Baum
Crazy Horse Killed
Red Cloud Killed
September 5th, 1877
-At Fort. Robinson Nebraska
-Went to see wife and on the way back was caught
-Killed by Indian Police Officer
-Oglala Lakota Chief died in 1909
Sitting Bull's Death
-December 15th, 1980
-1881: Fort Buford (Montana)
-1883: Standing Rock Reservation (SD)
-1855: Wild West Show
-Also killed by Indian police
-US thought this practice was a great danger
-Wovoka: the "Christ" vision of a better world
-If danced then world would go back to how it was before
-Wore clothes thought to reflect bullets
-Lakota embraced this
L. Frank Baum
-Called for extermination of NA
-Editor & Publisher of the Aberdeen Pioneer
-Called NA whining curs of people
-Wrote wizard of Oz
Wounded knee was not a battle it was a...
-The Lakota had already surrendered to US army
-Ended all war & conflict
-Dec. 29th, 1890
-Women & children running
-US army in a circle & their causalities were because of each other
-They had one big mass grave
Displacement & Disruption
-Buffalo gone; med. attention & food low
-Eradication of traditional way
-Decreased birth rate
-getting their rations was like a roll call
-Said to be given blankets with small pox
-thought NA were biologically naive
-Indian removal act of 1830: trail of tears
-Jan. 31, 1876: US gov't order all NA onto Res.
-Wounded knee Jan 15, 1891: Now hostile Indians
The Dead Indian Act
-If land given to you & NA died land goes to US
The Burke Act
-Forced fee on land & couldn't pay so land went back to US
-Gov't could go in for competency & take land
Indian Reorganization Act
-US govt' ability to take land away
Culture was on a continuum
Pre-contact: women had strong rolls
Post-contact: Women's rolls were weakened; God gives men all authority; men strongest of creatures & have place by God
NA "religions" were outlawed under the federal "Civilization Regulations"
-Rituals were outlawed
-Use of medicine & holy men
-Set up "offenses" which only NA could be arrested
Racism, Prejudice, & Dicrimination
For centuries NA have been fighting for justice and still today
-A stratified society of the powerful & the powerless
-Colonized people will face longer & harsher ramifications
Helplessness, hopelessness of poverty
-Forced dependency upon US gov't
-Poverty, hopelessness--- often lead to risky behabior to acquire a new norm in life