APES Chapter 7: Climate and Biomes Vocab (Miller 18)
short-term changes in the temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloud cover, wind direction and speed, and other conditions in the troposphere at a given place and time
physical properties of the troposphere of an area based on analysis of its weather records over a long period (at least 30 years); the two main factors determining this in an area are the temperature, with its seasonal variations, and the amount and distribution of precipitation
Mass movements of surface water produced by prevailing winds blowing over the oceans and the rising and sinking of water due to temperature and density.
movement of nutrient-rich bottom water to the ocean's surface; it can occur far from shore but usually takes place along certain steep coastal areas where the surface layer of ocean water is pushed away from shore and replaced by cold, nutrient-rich bottom water
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate phenomena that creates fluctuating ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific causing variations in regional climate patterns. The pattern generally fluctuates between three states: warmer than normal central and eastern equatorial Pacific (El Niño), cooler than normal central and eastern equatorial Pacific (La Niña) and neutral.
a cooling of the ocean surface off the western coast of South America, occurring periodically every 4 to 12 years and affecting Pacific and other weather patterns
climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
rain shadow effect
low precipitation on the far side (leeward side) of a mountain when prevailing winds flow up and over a high mountain or range of high mountains; this creates semiarid and arid conditions on the leeward side of a high mountain range
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities, especially vegetation; (Ex. types of deserts, grasslands, and forests)
a flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions with scattered trees and bushes
biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw; , The northernmost edge of the boreal forest, including species-poor woodland and peat deposits; integrating with the arctic tundra
tropical rain forest
a hot, humid biome near the equator, with much rainfall and a wide variety of life
forest in a temperate region, characterized by trees that drop their leaves annually Well defined seasons : cold to moderate winters (10 C); warm summers (21 C)
of or existing at or near a geographical pole or within the Arctic or Antarctic Circles; extremely cold
shows the average temperatures and precipitation in a place
biome in which evaporation exceeds precipitation and the average amount of precipitation is less than 25 centimeters (10 inches) per year; such areas have little vegetation or have widely spaced, mostly low vegetation
biome found in regions where moderate annual average precipitation (25-76 centimeters, or 10-30 inches) is enough to support the growth of grass and small plants but not enough to support large stands of trees
a vast treeless plain in the arctic regions between the ice cap and the tree line; characterized by cold, harsh winters, a short growing season, and potential for frost any month of the year; vegetation includes low-growing perennial plants, mosses and lichens
A broad band of mixed coniferous and deciduous trees that stretches across northern North America (and also Europe and Asia); its northernmost edge the taiga, integrates with the arctic tundra
biome characterized by short woody shrubs and a climate of mild wet winters and hot dry summers.
an area found in the stratosphere layer of the atmosphere that filters out most of the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays
the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, where weather occurs and where people live. It has the highest density of air and the temperature decreases as the elevation increases.
3rd layer of the atmosphere located at 501 to 80 km. Coldest layer of the atmosphere where phenomena like noctilucent clouds and meteor trails may be seen.
50 to 80 km, most meteorites burn up here
a region within the mesosphere and thermosphere containing ions that lead to phenomena like Auroras and radio signal deflection.
An abnormal climate event that occurs every two to seven years in the pacific ocean. This change in wind intensity and direction creates a change in the surface water temperature producing a warm current, effecting weather events and the availability of nutrients for ocean life.
atmospheric layer that is 12 to 50 km in elevation, Ozone held here, absorbs UV radiation. Jet stream is in this layer.
green house effect
the capacity of certain gases in the atmosphere to trap heat, thereby warming the earth. Heat is trapped when it is re-radiated from Earth which converts incoming sunlight to longer wavelengths.
green house gases
Gases in the atmosphere that trap heat including CO2 -carbon dioxide, N2O -nitrous oxide , CH4- methane, H2O- water vapor, O3-Ozone and halocarbons like Chlorofluorocarbons or CFC's.
A layer of permanently frozen subsoil found in the tundra
"Deciduous" means "falling off or out at a certain season". That explains why deciduous forest means a forest in which the leaves fall off the trees when the winter comes. The deciduous forests are located in the temperate zone above the tropical forests and below the coniferous forests.
adiabatic cooling and heating
as air rises it expands due to less pressure and therefore less density. As it expands it cools. When cool air sinks pressure is increased and therefore density, sinking air is being heated.
transport heat from the equator to 30 degrees latitude
Mid-latitude convection cells that create westerlies (winds) between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.
Convection cells located at the 60's and 90's degree latitude
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